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About this book
About this book
Air Quality Assessment is an integral component of any environmental management process. It involves not only the identification, monitoring, prediction and evaluation of such critical variables as source emissions and meteorogical conditions, but also potential changes to air quality as a result of emissions from a development and the mitigation and control of these emissions. Air Quality Assessment and Management : A practical guide describes the techniques available for an AQA while detailing the concepts and methodologies involved. It will review the principles of air quality management; primary sources of air pollution; impact of emissions on human health, flora and fauna; scoping of air quality impacts; baseline monitoring; impact prediction; impacts significance; and pollution mitigation and control. Emphasis is placed on the practical side of Air Quality Assessment, with numerous international case studies and exercises to aid the reader in their understanding of concepts and applications. Air Quality Assessment and Management is essential reading for practitioners in air quality management, environmental health officers, public health engineers, environmental consultants, and students in environmental health, pollution control, land planning and related disciplines.
Preface. Acknowledgements. Dedication. Author profile. 1 Introduction. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Air quality assessment and management. 2 Historical Perspective. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 UK historical perspective. 2.3 Air pollution episodes. 3 Air Pollution Legislation. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Historical perspective. 3.3 Principles of air pollution control. 3.4 International air pollution control. 3.5 National air pollution control regimes. 3.6 Source emissions control legislation. 3.7 Public awareness 4 Strategic Air Quality Issues. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Acid rain. 4.3 Photochemical smog. 4.4 Non photochemical smog. 4.5 Ozone depletion. 4.6 Greenhouse effect. Pollution Sources and Types. 5. Air. 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Composition of the atmosphere. 5.3 Air pollution sources. 5.4 Types of pollutants and their source. 5.5 Trends in air quality. 5.6 Indoor air pollution. 6 Effects of Air Pollution. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Human health. 6.3 Flora. 6.4 Fauna. 6.5 Ecosystems. 6.6 Materials. 6.7 Visibility (particle haze). 6.8 Case study. 7 Emission Inventories. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 The purpose of emission inventories. 7.3 Past and present atmospheric emission inventory initiatives. 7.4 Types of emission release and sources. 7.5 Information requirements. 7.6 Examples of national emission inventories. 7.7 Transboundary. 7.8 Pollution emission trends. 7.9 Case study. 7.10 Exercise. 8 Air Pollution Monitoring. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Forms of monitoring. 8.3 Site selection. 8.4 Monitoring strategies. 8.5 Monitoring standards and accreditation. 8.6 Monitoring methods and techniques. 8.7 Odour measurement. 8.8 Other equipment. 8.9 Monitoring networks. 8.10 Source monitoring. 8.11 Case study. 9 Impact Prediction. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Mechanisms for dispersing. 9.3 Air dispersion modelling. 9.4 Model characteristics. 9.5 Data requirements. 9.6 Air dispersion modelling procedures. 9.7 Stack height determination. 9.8 Plume rise. 9.9 Gaussian modelling. 9.10 Box models. 9.11 Linear models. 9.12 Physical models. 9.13 Types of air dispersion models. 9.14 Case study. 9.15 Exercise. 10 Impact Significance. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Human health criteria. 10.3 Air pollution indices. 10.4 Risk assessment. 10.5 Nuisance. 10.6 Flora. 10.7 Indoor air pollution. 10.8 Pollution episodes. 10.9 Case study. 11 Mitigation and Control. 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 What is mitigation and control? 11.3 Control of fugitive. 11.4 Techniques for the control of gaseous emissions. 11.5 Techniques for the control of particulate emissions. 11.6 Control of emissions from agricultural practices. 11.7 Control of emissions from motor vehicles. 11.8 Case study. 12 Application of AQA. 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Air quality management in the UK. 12.3 Designation of air quality management areas. 12.4 Air quality action plans. 12.5 Project level assessment. 12.6 Case study. 13 Case Studies. 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Case Study 1 - Spireslack OCCS. 13.3 Case Study 2 -