Environmental-friendliness, issues of public health, and the pros and cons of genetically-modified crops all receive regular coverage in the world's media. This, in turn, has led to increased questioning and investigation of chemical pesticides. Stenersen's concise and timely introduction to chemical pesticides describes these compounds according to their mode of action at the cellular and biochemical level.
Chemical Pesticides provides answers to questions such as why pesticides are toxic to the target organism and why pesticides are toxic to some organisms and not others. It describes how various poisons interfere with biochemical processes in organisms. Chemical Pesticides also explores how resistance to pesticides develops, how resistance can be used to illustrate the theory of evolution, and how it can be used to produce herbicide-resistant crop plants. Legal matters and potential environmental problems are also discussed.
By providing an integrated, yet simple description of modern chemical pesticides, the author provides a relevant text for professionals and students in biological disciplines such as biochemistry, medicine, agriculture, and veterinary science.
INTRODUCTIONMotivationPesticides and OpinionA Great MarketNomenclature, Definitions and TerminologyHelpful ReadingBiochemistry and Cell BiologyGeneral ToxicologyInsect Biochemistry, Plant Physiology, NeurophysiologyPesticidesSide Effects of PesticidesWHY IS A TOXICANT POISONOUSSeven Routes to DeathHow to Measure ToxicityEndpointsDose and EffectDose and ResponseLD50 and Related ParametersAcute and Chronic ToxicityInteractionsMechanisms of InteractionsExamplesPESTICIDES INTERFERING WITH PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO ALL ORGANISMSPesticides that Disturb Energy ProductionAnabolic and Catabolic ProcessesSynthesis of Acetyl Coenzyme A and the Toxic Mechanism of ArsenicThe Citric Acid Cycle and Its InhibitorsThe Electron Transport Chain and Production of ATPInhibition of ATP ProductionHerbicides that Inhibit PhotosynthesisWeak Organic AcidsFree Radical GeneratorsD1 - BlockersInhibitors of Carotene SynthesisProtoporphyrinogen Oxidase inhibitorsGeneral SH-Reagents and Free Radical GeneratorsMercuryOther Multisite FungicidesPesticides Interfering with Cell DivisionFungicidesHerbicidesPesticides Inhibiting Enzymes in Nucleic Acid SynthesisBACILLUS THURINGIENSIS AND ITS TOXINSThe Mechanism of Action d-endotoxinsBiotechnologyEngineered PlantsBiologyCommercial ProductsSPECIFIC ENZYME INHIBITORSInhibitors of Ergosterol SynthesisConclusionsHerbicides that Inhibit Synthesis of Amino AcidsInhibitors of Chitin SynthesisInsecticidesFungicidesInhibitors of CholinesteraseAcetylcholinesteraseOrganophosphatesCarbamatesDevelopment of Organophosphorus and Carbamate InsecticidesOther Enzymes Inhibited by Organophosphates and CarbamatesThe ButyrylcholinesterasesThe Neurotoxic Target Enzyme (NTE)CarboxylesterasesINTERFERENCE WITH SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION IN THE NERVESPotency of Nerve PoisonsSelectivityThe Nerve and the Nerve CellPesticides that Act on the AxonImpulse Transmission along the AxonPyrethroidsDDT and its AnaloguesPesticides Acting on Synaptic TransmissionInhibitory SynapsesThe Cholinergic SynapsesCalcium Channels as Possible Targets for InsecticidesSummaryPESTICIDES THAT ACT AS SIGNAL MOLECULESInsect HormonesInsect EndocrinologyJuvenile HormoneEcdysoneBehaviour-Modifying PesticidesPheromonesStructure - Activity RelationshipsPheromones used as Pesticides and LuresPlant HormonesTRANSLOCATION AND DEGRADATION OF PESTICIDESThe Compartment ModelThe Bioconcentration FactorThe Half-lifeThe Area under the CurveExampleDegradation of Pesticides by Micro-organismsDegradation by AdaptionDegradation by Co-metabolismKinetics of DegradationImportance of Chemical Structure for DegradationExamplesThe DegradersSoil AdsorptionWhy are Chemicals Adsorbed?ExamplesDesorptionEvaporationExampleBiotransformation in AnimalsOxidationEpoxide HydrolaseGlutathione TransferaseH