Coral reefs are among the most beautiful and bountiful of nature's achievement in the oceans. Not only do coral reefs host the ocean's greatest biodiversity, they contain records of ancient marine environments and the life-forms that occupied them. Residing at the interface of ocean, land, and atmosphere, coral reefs are also prone to long-term environmental change. How can coral reefs help scientists predict climate change from the local to global levels? What records of past climatic change do coral reefs possess? How do reefs endure natural and anthropogenic stressors? And how can we manage reefs to ensure their longevity? This volume responds to these, and other important questions, in 14 benchmark papers.