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This paper presents the results of biodiversity studies on the critical genus Rubus (Rosaccae) in the eastern part of the Polish Carpathians. In the study area, 35 Rubus species representing three subgenera and 15 series were found, including four newly described species (R. ambrosius, R. flos-amygdalae, R. parthenocissus, R. pericrispatus). For each species a distribu tion map using ATPOL 2 × 2 km cartogram squares is provided. For 32 species the information given includes detailed characteristics of the vertical distribution, phytocoenoses and habitats, including slope orientation, soil conditions (moisture, reaction, nitrogen content), insolation and temperature, some of them estimated using Ellenberg's bioindices. All of those parameters are presented in diagrams. The assessment of habitat conditions showed that Rubus species occur in somewhat different conditions in the study area than in areas west of Poland. The vertical distribution of most Rubus species in this area is limited by climatic distribution. The results of numerical analysis indicate that the Rubus flora of the eastern part of the Carpathians is impoverished in comparison to the Rubus flora of the western part.