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About this book
About this book
The control of E.coli 0157 has been at the heart of the environmental health practitioner's professional agenda since the UK's largest outbreak in Lanarkshire in 1996. The key to controlling the organism lies in ensuring the microbiological safety of food, drinking and recreational water and the prevention of direct spread from animal outbreaks. This book is aimed at health professionals who need to be fully informed about the sources and effects of the organism in order to provide advice and enforce legislation at local level as well as providing non specialist professionals including food industry managers with a practical introduction to the terminology, methods and issues surrounding the diagnosis and control of E.coli.
1. Overview. E.coli's which cause disease. The Emergence of VTEC 0157. How VTEC causes illness in Humans. Incubation Period. Infectious Dose. Practical Implications of Virulence Properties. The Disease. Factors Influencing the Emergence of VTEC. Summary. Key Messages. 2. How is Vtec Diagnosed? Examination of Faecal Specimens. Isolating E.coli 0157. Identifying Toxin Production. Strain Discrimination. Sereology. Period of Excretion. Future Developments. Summary. Key Messages. 3. How Common is VTEC Infection? Population Based Surveillance. HUS Surveillance. Incidence in the UK. Detecting Outbreaks. Con clusions. Special Studies. Summary. Key Messages. 4. How Does VTEC Spread to Humans? Evidence from Sporadic Cases. . Introduction. Finding the Source of Sporadic Infections. Analysis and Interpretation of Case Control Studies. Case Control Studies of Sporadic VTEC 0157 Infection. Microbiological Investigations of Sporadic Cases. Investigating Sporadic Cases of VTEC 0157. Key Messages. 5. How does VTEC Spread to Humans? - Evidence from Outbreaks. Food and Drinking Water Outbreaks - Beef Products. Food and Drinking Water Outbreaks - Milk and Dairy Products. Food and Drinking Water Outbreaks - Othe Foods. Food and Drinking Water Outbreaks - Food Outlets. Food and Drinking Water Outbreaks - Drinking Water. Environmental Health Conclusions for Food and Water Outbreaks. Animal Outbreaks. Environmental Health Conclusions for Animal Outbreaks. Person to Person Spread Outbreaks. Environmental Health Conclusions for Environmental Health Conclusions for Environmental Outbreaks. A Practical Approach to the Investigation of an Outbreak. Why are VTEC 0157 Outbreaks Different to Other Food Poisoning Outbreaks. Summary. Key Messages. 6. Animal and Environmental Reservoirs of VTEC. Farm Animals. Food and Water. Summary. Key Messages. 7. Control of VTEC 0157. Introduction. Background on each of the Organisations. Control Point 1: On-Farm Control. Control Point 2: Contamination of Raw Meat. Control Point 3: Contamination of Milk. Control Point 4: Contamination of Crops and Produce (Fruit and Vegetables) by Animal Manure. Control Point 5: Contamination ofCrops and Produce (Fruit and Vegetables) by Human Faeces. Control Point 6: Contamination of Drinking Waters by Animal Manure. Control Point 7: Contamination of Recreational Water by Animal Manure. Control Point 8. Contamination of Drinking Water by Human Faeces. Control Point 9. Contamination of Recreational Water by Human Faeces. Control Point 10. Zoonotic Spread. Control Point 11. Consumption of Raw and Undercooked Meat and Other Food Products. Control Point 12. Consumption of Ready to Eat Foods Cross Contaminated by VTEC 0157. Control Point 13. Person to Person Transmission via Infected Food Handlers or Faecal-Oral Transmission.