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The requirement for control of forest insect pests is ubiquitous throughout the world. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the dominant paradigm in the management and control of forest insects, rather than the use of costly and potential hazardous direct control measures such as insecticides. The effectiveness of these techniques is intimately linked to the ecological and life history characteristics of both trees and target species. A central theme of this text is an examination of the ecological context of the major components of IPM, and how and when to apply them in the management of forest insect pests of both temperate and tropical forests.