The periodic flood pulse of the Amazon River has been the main controlling factor in the local ecosystems for at least two million years. Numerous adaptations, in some cases along with speciation, have evolved in local terrestrial invertebrates. The small millipede Poratia obliterata (Kraus, 1960), which probably originates from the Andes, is currently known from a remarkably broad range of Central Amazonian biotopes, i.e. various seasonal inundation forests, upland forest and plantations. Like most native millipedes, P. obliterata appears to escape flooding by tree ascents. Such developed survival strategies adaptive to annual inundation can either reflect ecological plasticity or implicate ecological speciation, .i.e. `biotope-specific races' or ecotypes. To assess the causal mode of adaptation, ecological studies with genetic analyses are combined in this work.
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