Concern about the environmental impacts of transgenic crops is one of the major reasons for the EU's quasi-moratorium on GMOs. The contributions in this book show that the economic implications of these concerns are far-reaching and complex. They range from the farm level to research and technology development on the one side and consumer reactions on the other side, and influence not only government response but also international trade and public and private incentives for R&D.
Each contribution includes a comment, which raises questions that need further investigation. A summary of the questions in research topics concludes the contributions. The book will be of interest for policy makers as well as scholars working in established areas of social and natural sciences with an interest in the complex issues related to the release of transgenic crops.
Preface1. Environmental costs and benefits of transgenic crops: Introduction.- 2 Environmental effects of genetically modified crops: differentiated risk assessment and management.- 3 Assessing the environmental impact of changes in pesticide use on transgenic crops.- 4 Biological limits on agricultural intensification: an example from resistence management.- 5 Stability of pathogen-derived Potato virus Y resistance in potato under field conditions and some aspects of their ecological impact.- 6 Bacillus thuringiensis resistance management: experiences from the USA.- 7 Gene flow from crops to wild plants and its population-ecological consequences in the context of GM-crop biosafety, including some recent experiences with lettuce .- 8 Irreversible costs and benefits of transgenic crops: what are they?.- 9 Ex post evidence on adoption of transgenic crops: US soybeans .- 10 Spatial and temporal dynamics of gene movements arising from deployment of transgenic crops.- 11 Minimum distance requirements and liability: implications for co-existence.- 12 Biotechnology, the US-EU dispute and the Precautionary Principle.- 13 Do patent-style intellectual property rights on transgenic crops harm the environment?.- 14a. Agricultural biotechnology and globalization: U.S. experience with public and private sector research.- 15 Will consumers lose or gain from the environmental impacts of transgenic crops?.- 16. Conclusions.- List of authors