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About this book
About this book
Current environmental management policies aim to achieve a harmonious balance, between the development of economic resources and the preservation of the environment, with the ultimate goal of reaching sustainability, while improving the health, safety and prosperity of the population. This approach involves: taking acceptable risks in terms of the environment, human health and the economy, an interdisciplinary activity that requires close cooperation between several scientific and engineering fields. This volume features contributions from health specialists, social and physical scientists and engineers, originally presented at the 'First International Conference on Environmental Exposure and Health'. The papers included cover areas such as: Air exposure modelling and assessment; Indoor air quality and exposure; Emerging water contaminants: environmental fate and health effects; Exposure-dose reconstruction; Biomarkers in exposure studies; Chemical mixtures and exposure; Health risk analysis; Exposure monitoring and modelling; Environmental impact and exposure; and Communication and social issues in environmental exposure.
Section 1: Air exposure modelling and assessment Stochastic air quality analysis; Population exposure to atmospheric pollutants: the influence of urban structure; Comparison of fine particulate matter and ozone levels in zip code areas of New York City with different child asthma burdens; Outdoor measurements of airborne emission of staphylococci from a broiler barn and its predictability by dispersion models; Relating air quality and environmental public health tracking data Section 2: Indoor air quality and exposure Standard guide for building indoor dispersion analysis, modeling and health effect assessment; Multiple chemical sensitivity as a result of exposure to heterogeneous air pollutants; Study of the impacts of environmental tobacco smoke and respirable suspended particulate matter on the respiratory health of adults; Orientated PM10 measurements with a high volume sampler in a turkey barn Section 3: Emerging water contaminants: environmental fate and health effects Emerging drinking water disinfection by products and new health issues; Chloramination techniques to reduce NDMA formation during Disinfection; Potential enhanced N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation under water treatment conditions; Fate and transformation of quinoxaline N'N' dioxide antibacterial agents during chlorination; Removal of emerging trace contaminants by nanofiltration membranes Section 4: Exposure-dose reconstruction Reconstruction and forecasting of human internal dose for cases of accidental pollution with long-living radionuclides; A dose reconstruction of air emissions from the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge TN, using historic air monitoring and emission data; Identification of contaminant sources in a water-distribution system using an optimization-simulation method; Linking activity-travel analysis and exposure assessment: benefits and challenges; Reconstructing historical contamination events: use of computational tools to assist environmental engineers and health scientists Section 5: Biomarkers in exposure studies A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of biomarkers of acrylamide exposure; Assessing human exposure to acrylamide; Assessment of l transgenic fish as a new model for UV mutagenesis; Hepatitis B virus co-infection is less common in HIV positive Indian patients Section 6: Chemical mixtures and exposure Exposure to contaminant mixtures at US hazardous waste sites; Interaction profiles for simple mixtures: mixtures with radioactive chemicals; Distribution of immunoglobulins A, G and M among individuals living in communities potentially exposed to low-level environmental exposures; The role of apples in the PCDD/F daily dietary intake; Handling of high potency drugs: process and containment Section 7: Health risk analysis Assessment of risk from exposure to soil particles in playgrounds in Madrid, Spain; Spatially-explicit wildlife exposure modeling tools for use in human health and ecological risk assessment: SEEM and FISHRAND-migration; An environmental risk assessment using CalTOX; Human health risk from trihalomethanes in drinking water evaluation with fuzzy aggregation; Health risk analysis for a contaminated industrial site: pre and post remediation scenarios; Geographic information system-based selection of health risks for waterborne disease resulting from environmental exposure to wastewater Section 8: Exposure monitoring and modelling Quantitative assessment of human exposure - UVA radiation; Trans,trans,-muconic acid in occupational exposure modeling; Potential arsenic exposures to children associated with in-service and recycled CCA-treated wood in tropical environments; Environmental exposure of thallium and potential health risk in an area of high natural concentrations of thallium: southwest Guizhou, China Section 9: Environmental impact and exposure Impact of closure of a large lead-zinc smelter on elevated blood lead levels of children in adjacent suburbs, Boolaroo, Australia; Environmental conservation measures for construction of a power plant; Environmental impact and countermeasures to forest decline in Japan; Evaluation of a method of estimating agricultural chemical use; The impact of household solid fuel use on population exposure and health in Shanxi province, China; Effect of remediation measures on exposure and liver detoxification capacity of children; Justification for soil sampling for Iodine-129 associated with the release of Iodine-131 from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Section 10: Communication and social issues in environmental exposure Perspectives on environmental health management paradigms; Developing effective environmental exposure education for clinicians; The problem with epidemiology data in assessing environmental health impacts of toxic sites; Expert witness testimony in complex environmental litigation; Design of gardens in healthcare facilities