The European Red List of Birds is a review of the regional extinction risk of all 544 species of birds occurring regularly and naturally in Europe. The assessment, performed by BirdLife International for the fourth time (1994, 2004, 2015 and 2021), follows the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria applied at the regional level. Evaluating the extinction risk of each species – i.e., Least Concern, Near Threatened or threatened, and if the latter, to what level – helps to inform decision-making, shaping national and international environmental policies and on-the-ground conservation action. The current update of the Red List assessment was (similarly to 2015) carried out at two regional levels EU and Europe. The results presented in this report are based on data collated by thousands of experts and volunteers from 54 countries and territories across Europe, extending from Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard in the North to the Canary Islands, Malta and Cyprus in the South, and from the Azores in the West to the Caucasus and Ural Mountains in the East. These include data reported by the 28 EU Member States (including the UK) under Article 12 of the Birds Directive. Additional sources such as scientific reports, national atlases and Red Data Books, as well as peer-reviewed literature, were also used to make sure the most recent data available were used. The data, compiled in 2019, encompass the 1980-2018 period.