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About this book
About this book
Examines physical, chemical and biological soil processes, soil formation and weathering process, soil degradation processes and ways to control them, and the potentials and limitations of using simulation models.
About the Editors Contributors Preface Introduction Chapter 1. Physical Processes Energy Balance at the Earth's Surface Heat Flow Processes in a Soil Profile Gas/Air Flow Processes in a Soil Profile Water Flow Processes in a Soil Profile Coupled Water and Heat Flow Processes Within the Soil Water and Heat Flow Processes of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer System (SVAT) Summary Chapter 2. Chemical Processes Electrochemical Properties of Soil Solids Electrical Charges of Soil Clays Electrical Charges of Soil Organic Substances Electrochemical Properties of Soil Solutes Electric Double Layers Adsorption and Cation Exchange Reactions Summary Chapter 3. Biological Processes Soil As a Biological System Biological Processes Occurring in Soil and Their Kinetics Rhizosphere-Microbial and Soil Fauna-Microbial Interactions Microbial Activity and Microbial Diversity Modeling Soil Biological Processes Summary Chapter 4. The Conformational Structure of Humic Substances Paradigms in Humus Chemistry Models of Conformational Structure of Humic Substances The Supramolecular Associations of Self-Assembling Humic Molecules Enzymatic Polymerization of Humic Molecules Computational Models of Conformational Structure of Humic Substances Concepts of Supramolecular Association of Humic Substances Summary Chapter 5. Processes of Soil Formation Formation of Parent Material Surface Soil-Forming Processes Soil-Forming Processes in Lower Soil Horizons Modeling Soil-Forming Processes Summary Chapter 6. Radioactivity in the Soil-Plant System Deposition of Radionuclides Behaviour of Radionuclides in Soils Soil- to-Plant Transfer of Radionuclides Modeling Radioactivity in Soil-Plant System Future Outlook Summary Chapter 7. Soil Acidification Buffering Processes Acid-Generating Processes Connected with C, N, and S Cycling Proton Budgets Aluminum Chemistry Soil Acidification Sensitivity Acidification of Arable Soils Acidification of Forest Soils Future Perspectives Summary Chapter 8. Soil Alkalinization Origin and Distribution of Alkali Soils Ion Exchange Clay Swelling and Dispersion Alkali Soil Reclamation Summary Chapter 9. Soil Erosion and Conservation Erosion of Soil by Wind Modeling Wind Erosion Erosion of Soil by Water Modeling Water Erosion Summary Chapter 10. Soil Water Dynamics Model Characteristics Simulating Soil-Water-Plant-Atmosphere-Management Dynamics Limitations of Models with Homogenous Soil Water Properties Summary Chapter 11. Solute-Water Interactions The Transport Volume Piston Displacement of Solute Transfer Function Models Solute Reactions During Transport Extension of Models to Large Areas Summary Chapter 12. Soil-Atmosphere Interactions Carbon Dioxide Exchange Soils As a Source/Sink for Methane Oxides of Nitrogen: N2O and NO Past, Current, and Future Trends Summary Chapter 13. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics Assessment of Soil Carbon Pools Organic Matter Fractions and Transformations Factors and Processes Affecting Accumulation and Depletion of Soil Organic Matter Soil Organic Matter and Climate Change A Global Inventory of Soil Organic Matter Modeling Soil Organic Matter Dynamics Summary Chapter 14. Nitrogen Dynamics Assessment of Soil N Pools Nitrogen Input Processes Nitrogen Loss Processes Nitrogen Transformation Processes Crop N Uptake Modeling Nitrogen Dynamics in the Soil-Plant System Evaluation, Comparison, and Application of Models Summary Chapter 15. Phosphorus Dynamics The Conceptual Model Phosphorus Forms in Plant and Soil and Eutrophication Phosphorus Transport Considerations Adsorption-Desportion Precipitation-Dissolution Kinetics Organic-P Transformations P Uptake and Activity and Growth of Roots Models Describing P-Dynamics in Soil Summary Chapter 16. Potassium Dynamics Long-Term K Dynamics in Soil-Plant Systems K Dynamics in Soils and Plants During Crop Growth Validation and Application of Multiparameter Mechanistic K Models Summary Chapter 17. Secondary Nutrients: Sulphur, Calcium, and Magnesium Input to Soils Reactions in Soils Plant Uptake Plant Requirements Interactions with Other Nutrients Animal Requirements Modeling Concepts and Applications Summary Chapter 18. Micronutrients and Toxic Elements Sources of Trace Elements in Soils Forms of Trace Elements in Soils Factors Affecting the Solubility and Bioavailability of Trace Elements Mobility of Trace Elements in Soils Modeling of Trace Element Speciation in Soil Solution Modeling the Distribution of Trace Elements Between Soil Solution and Solid Phases Kinetics of Trace Element Reactions in Soils Modeling of Trace Element Leaching from Soil Applications of Trace Element Modeling in Soils Summary Chapter 19. Agrochemicals Sorption and Degradation in Soil Transport in Soil Volatilization Plant Uptake Summary Chapter 20. Crop Growth and Development History Description of the Appropriate Processes Concepts in Modeling the Processes Applications of Crop Models Generic Crop Simulation Models Summary Chapter 21. Modeling Crop Responses to Plant Growth Regulators The Uses of Plant Growth Regulators The Need for Model Development Crop Growth Model Database and Model Development Model Validation and Application On-Farm Use of Crop Models and Technology Transfer Summary Chapter 22. Modeling: Potential and Limitations Scale and Hierarchy Determinacy and Randomness Error and Nonlinearity Validation and Parameterization Application of Models How Might Soil Modeling Development Further Summary Index Reference Notes Included