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About this book
About this book
For most post-conflict countries, the transition to peace is daunting. In countries with high-value natural resources, the stakes are unusually high and peacebuilding is especially challenging. Paradoxically, resource-rich post-conflict countries face both unique problems and opportunities. They enter peacebuilding with an asset that distinguishes them from other war-torn societies-access to natural resources that can yield substantial revenues for alleviating poverty, compensating victims, creating jobs, and rebuilding the country and economy.
Evidence shows, however, that this opportunity is often wasted. Resource-rich countries do not have a better record in sustaining peace. In fact, they are more likely to relapse into conflict than their less resource-rich counterparts. This book examines experiences from over a dozen countries in post-conflict management of high-value resources and its effect on peacebuilding. It provides a concise theoretical and practical framework for policymakers, researchers, practitioners, and students. Covering resource extraction, revenue sharing and allocation, institution building, and other key issues, it identifies lessons and opportunities for converting resource revenues to a peaceful future.
"High-Value Natural Resources and Post-conflict Peacebuilding" is part of a global initiative to identify and analyze lessons in post-conflict peacebuilding and natural resource management. The project has generated six volumes of case studies and analyses, with contributions by practitioners, policymakers, and researchers. Other volumes address land; water; livelihoods; restoration, remediation, and reconstruction; and, governance.
Acknowledgements List of Figures and Tables List of Acronyms Foreword Preface Part I: Introduction Introduction Part II: High-Value Resources Introduction Non-Renewable Resources An Inescapable Curse? Resource Management, Peace-building and Violent Conflict in the Niger Delta Diamonds for Peace?: Kimberlite Mining in Sierra Leone The Right Interventions? Donors in the DRC Mining Sector Lurking Beneath the Surface: Oil, Environment Degradation and Armed Conflict in Sudan Renewable Resources Forest Resources and Peacebuilding: Preliminary Lessons From Liberia and Sierra Leone Building Peace through Sustainable Forest Management in Asia: Lessons Learned from USAID Initiatives The Impacts of Afghan and U.S. Counter-narcotics Efforts on Afghan Poppy Farmers Wars of Words and Poverty in the VRAE: Reparations, Cultural Rights and Narco-Terror in Peru's Apurimac and Ene Valley Part III: Management Approaches Introduction High-Value Natural Resources, Development, and Conflict: Channels of Causation Controlling Extraction and Extractive Industries Resources for Peace? Peacekeeping Mandates and Contractual (Re)negotiations in High-Value Resource Sectors Mitigating Risks and Realizing Opportunities: Environmental and Social Standards for Foreign Direct Investment in High-Value Natural Resources Assigned Corporate Social Responsibility in a Rentier State: The Case of Angola Re-opening and Developing Mines in Post-Conflict Situations: Scoping the Challenges for Company-Community Relations Revenue Distribution Wealth Sharing from Natural Resources in War-to-Peace Transitions Decentralizing High-Value Resource Revenues: Bane or Panacea for Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Diamonds, Governance, and the Micro-Politics of Community-Led Development in Post-War Sierra Leone Direct Distribution of Natural Resource Revenues as a Policy for Conflict Resolution and Prevention Sustaining Local Livelihoods The 'Janus' Nature of Opium Poppy - a View from the Field Tackling Gender Issues in the Mining Sector of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Case Study Natural Resource Management and Peacebuilding in Nepal: Local Peace Building and Conflict Transformation in Nepal through Community Forestry and Community Forest User Groups Commodity and Revenue Tracking The Kimberley Process at 10: Reflections on a Decade of Efforts to End the Trade of Conflict Diamonds Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS): A Model Negotiation? The Kimberley Process: An Industry Perspective Beyond Certification: Examining the Useful Limits of Certification and Informal Mining Situations Addressing the Roots of Liberia's Conflict through the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Improving Forest Governance; Excluding Illegal Timber - The EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance, and Trade Initiative Institution Building The Legal Framework for Managing Oil In Post-Conflict Iraq Leveraging High Value Natural Resources to Engage Stakeholders in Industry Reform: The Liberia Forestry Initiative's Role in Liberia's Transition to Stability Petroleum Blues: The Political Economy of Resources and Conflict in Chad The Natural Resource Curse & Political Violence: Can Economic Freedom Help Domestic Peace? Part IV: Conclusion Buying Peace or Spoiling the Future: Management of High-Value Natural Resources in Peacebuilding Processes Appendix I: Glossary of terms Appendix II: Contributor biographies Appendix III: Tables of contents for the series Index
Paivi Lujala is a Senior Researcher at the Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology and the Centre for the Study of Civil War at the Peace Research Institute Oslo. Siri Aas Rustad is a Researcher at the Centre for the Study of Civil War at the Peace Research Institute Oslo, and Department of Sociology and Political Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).