Part I. J. B. S. Haldane: 1. Haldane's ideas in biology with special reference to disease and evolution James F. Crow; 2. JBS Haldane and the malaria hypothesis D. J. Weatherall; Part II. malarial parasites: 3. Evolutionary genetics of Plasmodium Falciparum, the agent of malignant malaria Stephen M. Rich and Francisco J. Ayala; 4. Evolutionary biology of malaria parasites Ananias A. Escalante and Altaf A. Lal; 5. G6PD deficiency and malarial resistance in humans: insights from evolutionary genetic analyses Sara A. Tishkoff and Brian C. Verrelli; 6. The enigma of vivax malaria and erythrocyte duffy-negativity Peter A. Zimmerman; Part III. Other Parasites: 7. Influenza evolution Robin M. Bush and Nancy J. Cox; 8. Free-living to free-wheeling: the evolution of Vibrio cholerae from innocence to infamy Rita R. Colwell, Shah M. Faruque and G. Balakrish Nair; 9. Evolutionary dynamics of Daphnia and their microparasites Tom Little and Dieter Ebert; 10. Human susceptibility to visceral Leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani) and to Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni) is controlled by major genetic loci A. Dessein, B. Bucheton, L. Argiro, N. M. A. Elwali, V. Rodrigues, C. Chevillard, S. Marquet, Helia Dessein, S. H. El-Safi and L. Abel; Part IV. Genetic and Evolutionary Considerations: 11. The evolution of pathogen virulence in response to animal and public health interventions Andrew F. Read, Sylvain Gandon, Sean Nee and Margaret J. Mackinnon; 12. Infection and the diversity of regulatory DNA Lindsay G. Cowell, N. Avrion Mitchison and Brigitte Muller; 13. Genetic epidemiology of infectious diseases: the first half century Newton E. Morton; 14. The impact of human genetic diversity in the transmission and severity of infectious diseases Michel Tibayrenc; 15. Evolution and the etiology of diabetes mellitus Kyle D. Cochran and Gregory M. Cochran; 16. The future of human evolution Luca Cavalli-Sforza.