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About this book
About this book
Presents an original approach to the ecology of agricultural landscapes by linking human and ecological functioning, thus allowing the analysis of the environmental consequences of human activities. The major concepts are covered, the methods of spatially explicit analyses from an ecological perspective, and the factors of landscape dynamics having ecological implications.
Part 1 Introduction: definition of a discipline - emergence of landscape ecology in the history of ecology, recognition of heterogeneity in ecological systems, taking human activities into account in ecological systems, explicit accounting for space and time, landscape ecology is based on scientific theories linked to ecology and related disciplines; landscape ecology - definition of a multidisciplinary approach -landscape as understood by the ecologist, landscape ecology - an interdisciplinary approach, landscape ecology - application of results of fundamental research to conservation biology and land management. Part 2 Landscape structure and dynamics: analysis of spatial structures - categories of landscape elements, from sample plots in a wood to woods in a landscape, typology of patches and corridors, basic concepts for quantitative approaches, measurement of heterogeneity, fragmentation, connectedness, return to scale dependence - contribution of fractal geometry, elements of geostatistics, typologies of landscape structures, general conclusion; dynamics of landscapes - questions on organization and dynamics of landscapes stemming from observation, changes in land use on the global scale, regional approaches to changes in land use - variations depending on modes of measurement, local approaches to changes in land cover - importance of spatialization, dynamics of valley landscapes - the water course and its corridors, dynamics of non-anthropogenic landscapes, land cover and evolving landscapes - a general phenomenon; organization of landscapes - categories of models, the concept of organization, ecological organization of landscapes, from farming systems to landscape diversity, general approach of dynamics and organization of agrarian landscapes, landscape dynamics of (re)organization - multi-scale and multidisciplinary approach. Part 3 Ecological processes within landscapes: the functioning of populations at the landscape level - patch theory and functioning of metapopulations, multi-habitat species, movement in landscapes, landscape dynamics and the functioning of populations, population models used in landscape ecology; interspecific relationships and biodiversity in landscapes - interspecific relationships, biodiversity; geochemical flows in landscapes - buffer zones, erosive phenomena and landscape structure, transfers in watersheds, conclusion. Part 4 Applications to landscape management: application of landscape ecology concepts to landscape management and design; corridor concept applied to development; considering landscape ecology concepts in establishing transportation infrastructures; the development of rural landscapes.