This full-colour report, illustrated with photographs, maps and graphs, presents the results and recommendations of South Africa's first National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment (NSBA), the first ever comprehensive assessment of biodiversity throughout the country. It has four components, dealing with the terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. For each of these the current status and protection levels of ecosystems are assessed, and priorities for conservation action are identified. The NSBA should inform the policies, plans and day-to-day activities of a wide range of sectors, both public and private. It is hoped that the spatial products presented in the report will be widely used and built upon.