With the advent of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986, many water utilities are reexamining their water treatment practices. Upcoming new regulations on disinfection and on disinfection by-products, in particular, are the primary driving forces for the big interest in ozone. It appears that ozone, with its strong disinfection capabilities, and apparently lower levels of disinfection by-products (compared to other disinfectants), may be the oxidant/disinfectant of choice. Many utilities currently using chlorine for oxidation may need to switch due to chlorine by-product concerns. Utilities using chloramines may need to use ozone to meet CT requirements.This book, prepared by 35 international experts, includes current technology on the design, operation, and control of the ozone process within a drinking water plant. It combines almost 100 years of European ozone design and operating experience with North American design/operations experience and the North American regulatory and utility operational environment. Topics covered include ozone chemistry, toxicology, design consideration, engineering aspects, design of retrofit systems, and the operation and economics of ozone technology.The book contains a 'how to' section on ozone treatability studies, which explains what information can be learned using treatability studies, at what scale (bench, pilot, or demonstration plant), and how this information can be used to design full-scale systems. It also includes valuable tips regarding important operating practices, as well as guidance on retrofits and the unique issues involved with retrofitting the ozone process. With ozone being one of the hottest areas of interest in drinking water, this book will prove essential to all water utilities, design engineers, regulators, and plant managers and supervisors.
INTRODUCTION. PURPOSE OF BOOK. CURRENT ROLE OF OZONE IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT. History of Ozone Use. Current Status in North America. Current Status in Europe. Current Status in the Middle East and Far East. Current Status in the World at Large. THE FUTURE. FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS. CHEMISTRY-INTRODUCTION. Molecular Ozone Reactivity. Decomposition of Ozone. Reaction With Inorganics. Oxidation of Synthetic Organic Compounds. Reaction of Ozone on Cell Constituents In Vitro. Reactions With Aquatic Humic Substances. TOXICOLOGY. Principles and Limitations of Toxicological Testing. Short-Term Mutagenicity and Genotoxicity Tests. Short-Term Bioassay for Carcinogenic/Mutagenic By-Products. Subchronic Bioassays on Nongenotoxic Ozone Disinfection By-Products. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF OZONE ANALYSIS-INTRODUCTION. Ozone Measurements in the Gas Phase. Interferences Affecting Dissolved Ozone Measurements. Constraints of Dissolved Ozone Measurements. Reporting Gas-Phase Ozone Concentration. Ozone Measurement in the Aqueous Phase (Ozone Residual). Gas-Phase Measurements. Conclusions. OZONE GENERATION. Basic Principles. Ozone Generation By Corona Discharge. Alternative Methods. OZONE GAS TRANSFER. Solubility of Ozone in Water. Contacting of Ozone With Water. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF OZONE: PRINCIPLES AND CASE STUDIES. INTRODUCTION. Uses of Ozone. Current Practice. IRON AND MANGANESE REMOVAL. Principles of Removal. Case Studies. Design Considerations. COLOR ABATEMENT. Definition and Origin of Color. Treatments for Color Removal. Case Study: Tullich Water Treatment Works, Oban, Scotland. Design Considerations. CONTROL OF TASTES AND ODORS. Introduction. Definition of Tastes and Odors and Evaluation Techniques. Odor- and Taste-Producing Compounds and Their Origin. Odor and Taste Elimination Processes. Case Studies: Choisy-le-Roi and Morsang-sur-Seine. Design Considerations. ELIMINATION OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. Uncatalyzed Ozonation. Advanced Oxidation Processes. Case Study on Ozone-GAC Treatment: Rouen La Chapelle Water Utility (Seine Maritime, France). Design Considerations. PARTICULATE REMOVAL. Principles. Case Studies. Special Considerations for Process Evaluation, Design, and Control. ALGAE REMOVAL. Problems Connected With the Presence of Plankton in the Water. Review of the Principal Treatments Currently Used for Plankton Removal. Advantages of Ozonation in Treating Plankton-Laden Water. Case Studies. DISINFECTION. Principles. Case Studies. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL. Introduction. Formation of Ozonation By-Products. Primary Effects on General Disinfection By-Product Formation. Secondary Effects of Preozonation on Disinfection By-Products. Case Study: The Belle Glade Water Treatment Plant. Design of Pilot Studies for DBP Control. MINIMIZATION OF ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS. Introduction. Case Studies: Subchronic, Carcinogenic, and Mutagenic Effects of Ozonated Drinking Water. Unresolved Questions Concerning the Toxicology of Ozonation By-Products. Conclusions and Recommendations. BIOLOGICAL STABILIZATION. Introduction. Fundamental Aspects. Stabilization Processes. Design Considerations. ENGINEERING ASPECTS. TREATABILITY STUDIES. General Study Considerations. Study Approach. Bench-Scale Studies. Pilot- and Demonstration-Scale Studies. Parameter Measurements. Interpretation of Results. Process Recommendations. FEED GAS PREPARATION. Feed Gas Selection. Feed Gas Quality. Gas Preparation Systems. OZONE GENERATION. Commercial Scale Ozone Generator Operating Principles. Generator Technology and Materials Used. Electrical Parameters and Variables That Affect Ozone Production. Ozone Generator Cooling. Various Types of Ozone Generators. DESIGN OF CONTACT CHAMBERS AND DIFFUSION SYSTEMS. Overall Considerations. Ozone Dissolution Techniques. Contactor and Dissolution System Selection. Contactor Design Considerations. INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS. General Considerations. Dewpoint Measurement and Drying System Control. Gas Flow Meters. Alarms. OZONE DESTRUCTION SYSTEMS. Reasons for Ozone Destruction. Current Design Practice. Other Ozone Destruction Methods. CORROSION CONSIDERATIONS AND OZONE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. Gas Preparation System. Material Selection for Ozonation Systems. RETROFIT OF OZONE SYSTEMS. Introduction. Approach to Retrofit Project Development. Process Considerations. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION. Introduction. Specification Requirements. Example Power Evaluation Test. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS. Noise Control. Structural Arrangement. CHECKLISTS FOR OZONE SYSTEM DESIGN. OPERATING AN OZONATION FACILITY. OPERATING METHODS. Air as Feed Gas. Oxygen as Feed Gas. OZONE SYSTEM RELIABILITY. Design and Standby Capacities. Reliability of Equipment. REQUIRED PLANT MAINTENANCE. Air Compressors. Aftercooler and Refrigerant Dryer. Moisture Separators and Air Filters. Desiccant Dryer. Ozone Generator. Contractor and Dissolution System. Destructor. Control Boards and Electronic Equipment. EMPLOYEE TRAINING. Operator Participation in Pilot Tests. Training Personnel During Facility Startup. Plant O & M Manuals. Troubleshooting Schedules. SAFETY. Gaseous Ozone Exposure-The Labor Code. Protection of Personnel. ECONOMICS OF OZONE SYSTEMS: NEW INSTALLATIONS AND RETROFITS. "ORDER-OF-MAGNITUDE" ESTIMATES OF OZONE SYSTEM COSTS. Procedure for Obtaining Estimated Capital Cost. Proposed Procedure for Obtaining Estimated O & M Costs. CONSIDERATIONS FOR ESTIMATING THE COST OF AN OZONATION FACILITY. Considerations for Assessing Capital Costs. Considerations for Assessing Operating and Maintenance Costs. Considerations for Assessing Secondary Benefits and Costs. INFLUENCE OF THE DESIGNED OZONATION SYSTEM ON THE CAPITAL COST. Ozone Requirement Including Standby. System Size and Housing. Availability of Power to the Site. Contactors and Associated Dissolution System. Degree of Automation. INFLUENCE OF THE DESIGNED OZONATION SYSTEM ON O & M COSTS. O & M Costs of Feed Gas Train. O & M Cost of Ozone Generation. O & M Cost of the Dissolution Systems. O & M Cost of Ozone-Containing Offgas Destruction Systems. Overview of Total O & M Costs. CASE STUDIES. Case Studies of Capital Costs. Case Studies of Operating Cost. APPENDIX A: OZONE SYSTEM TERMINOLOGY, MEASUREMENTS, AND CONVERSIONS. INTRODUCTION. STANDARD CONDITIONS. OZONE CONSIDERATION. Measuring Ozone Concentration. Ozone Concentration Conversion Factors. PRODUCT GAS OZONE PRODUCTION. OZONE TRANSFER EFFICIENCY. INDEX.