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This comprehensive and accessible book fills the need for a political economy view of global environmental politics, focusing on the ways international economic processes affect environmental outcomes. It examines the main actors and forces shaping global environmental management, particularly in the developing world. Moving beyond the usual emphasis on international agreements and institutions, it strives to capture not only academic theoretical debates but also views on politics, economics, and the environment within the halls of global conferences, on the streets during antiglobalization protests, and in the boardrooms of international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and industry associations.
Paths to a Green World maps out an original typology of four contrasting worldviews of environmental change – those of market liberals, institutionalists, bioenvironmentalists, and social greens – and uses them as a framework to examine the links between the global political economy and ecological change. This typology provides a common language for students, instructors, and scholars to discuss the issues across the classical social science divisions. The second edition of this popular text has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect recent events, including the food crisis of 2007-2008, the financial meltdown of 2008, and the Copenhagen Climate Conference of 2009. Topics covered include the environmental implications of globalization; wealth, poverty, and consumption; global trade; transnational corporations; and multilateral and private finance.
1 Peril or Prosperity?
Mapping Worldviews of Global Environmental Change 1
Four Environmental Worldviews 3
Market Liberals 4
Social Greens 12
2 The Ecological Consequences of Globalization 19
What Is Globalization? 19
Globalization and the Global Environment 26
3 The Globalization of Environmentalism 47
The Evolution of Global Discourse on Environment and Development 48
Global Environmental Governance 72
4 Economic Growth in a World of Wealth and Poverty 87
Wealth and Poverty for Market Liberals and Institutionalists 87
Critiques: Bioenvironmentalists and Social Greens 106
5 Global Trade and the Environment 127
Globalization and Trade 129
Trade’s Impact on the Environment: Three Schools of Thought 131
The WTO and the Environment 143
Regional Trade Agreements—Opportunity for Greener Models? 156
6 Global Investment and the Environment 161
Globalization and Transnational Corporations 162
Differential Standards: Pollution Havens, Industrial Flight, Double Standards? 166
TNCs and Site Practices 174
Greening or Greenwash? 179
TNCs and Global Governance for Investment and the Environment 185
7 Global Financing and the Environment 193
Scope and Trends in International Finance 194
Multilateral Lending: The World Bank and the IMF 199
Multilateral Environmental Aid: The GEF and Climate Funds 209
Bilateral Finance: Export Credit Agencies 214
Private Finance and the Environment 217
8 Paths to a Green World?
Four Visions for a Healthy Global Environment 227
Market Liberal Vision 228
Institutionalist Vision 233
Bioenvironmentalist Vision 237
Social Green Vision 241
Clashing Visions? 245
Jennifer Clapp is CIGI Chair in International Governance and Professor of Environmental Studies at the University of Waterloo. She is the coauthor of Paths to a Green World (MIT Press, 2005). Peter Dauvergne is Professor of Political Science and Canada Research Chair in Global Environmental Politics at the University of British Columbia.
" [...] an excellent primer for political, non-profit and commercial leaders."
– Amy E. Harth, Electronic Green Journal
"An extraordinarily important book that hits a grand slam for its conceptual, theoretical, pedagogical, and practical breakthroughs. Paths to a Green World should be on the required reading list for any serious course on international environmental policy. I have used it in my course ever since the first edition, and will continue to do so until the day I retire."
– Benjamin Cashore, Professor of Environmental Governance and Political Science, Yale University
"There is much to admire about the second edition of Paths to a Green World. The book provides an authoritative yet concise introduction to the political economy of the global environment; it is written in an accessible and engaging style; and it offers a nuanced interpretation of the scholarly literature and political debate on the environmental impact of globalization, trade, finance, and production. Essential for students and teachers alike."
– Robert Falkner, London School of Economics and Political Science