Lakes are important habitats for many species and have always been extensively used by people for fishing and transport, as sources of drinking water and energy; and for recreation. The physical processes governing the water motion at and beneath the lake surface are described in this book. Fundamental physics using mathematical formulations, measuring techniques, and analytical/numerical modelling are applied to describe barotropic and baroclinic linear and nonlinear oscillations, temperature and mass distributions, seasonal changes of the water stratification, wind-induced currents and many other phenomena related to physical limnology. A large number of field, laboratory and numerical examples are used to support the pertinent equations.
Mathematical Prerequisites.- A Brief Review of the Basic Thermomechanical Laws of Classical Physics.- Fundamental Equations of Lake Hydrodynamics.- Conservation of Angular Momentum - Vorticity.- Turbulence Modelling.- Introduction to Linear Waves.- The Role of the Distribution of Mass within Water Bodies on Earth.- Vertical Structure of Wind-induced Currents in Homogenous and Stratified Waters.- Phenomenological Coefficients of Water.