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&i;Physiology and Behaviour of Plants&o; looks at plants and how they sense and respond to their environment. It takes the traditional plant physiology book into a new dimension by demonstrating how the biochemical observations underlie the behaviour of the plant. In many ways the book parallels courses studied at university on animal physiology and behaviour. The plant has to meet the same challenges as an animal to survive, but overcomes these challenges in very different ways. Students learn to think of plants not only as dynamic organisms, but aggressive, territorial organisms capable of long range communication.
The book is based on a successful course that the author has run for several years at Sussex University, UK. It relates plant biochemistry to plant function and is printed in four colour throughout. It includes a wealth of illustrations and photographs that engages the reader's attention and reinforce key concepts explored within the text and presents material in a modern 'topic' based approach, with many relevant and exciting examples to inspire the student.
Chapter 1 Introducing PlantsIntroductionThe beginning: the evolution of plants and the major divisionsConquering the landThe evolution of ligninPlants and mass extinctionFloristic kingdoms, Biogeography and BiomesWhat makes a plant?Structure of the whole plantStructure of the plant cellThe chloroplastThe vacuoleMicrobodiesThe cell wallPlasmodesmataReferencesFigure LegendsChapter 2 Photosynthesis the ultimate in autotrophyIntroductionLight harvestingLeaf formChlorophyll and the chloroplastConverting light energy into chemical energyThe Calvin cyclePhotorespirationCarbohydrate synthesis and storageThe fate of carbon fixed during photosynthesisThe efficiency of photosynthesisReferencesFigure LegendsChapter 3 Nonphotosynthetic metabolismIntroductionPhloem transportStructure of the phloemCoping with damage to the phloemThe sink tissuesSink regulation of photosynthesisReferencesFigure LegendsChapter 4 Roots and the uptake of waterIntroductionTypes of rootFunctions of rootsStructure of rootsOsmosisLoading and movement in the xylemStomataReferencesFigure legendsChapter 5 Mineral nutrition of plantsIntroductionSoil structure and mineral ionsGeneral ion uptakePhosphorus uptake and assimilationNitrogen uptake and assimilationIron uptake and assimilationSulphur uptake and assimilationFunction and effects of deficiencies of mineral ions on plantsMajor elementsMinor elementsReferencesFigure legendsChapter 6 Mycorrhizal Associations and Saprophytic NutritionIntroductionMycorrhizal associationsVesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal associationsOrchidaceous mycorrhizal associationsEctomycorrhizaEricaceous mycorrhizaEctendomycorrhizaDevelopment of the mycorrhizal associationThe role of the mycorrhizal associationSaprophytic nutritionReferencesFigure LegendsChapter 7 Parasitic plantsIntroductionEstablishing a parasitic relationshipFacultative parasitic plantsObligate parasitic plants, hemi-parasitesObligate parasitic plants, holo-parasitesParasitic species other than the dicotyledonsReferencesTablesFigure LegendsChapter 8 Carnivorous PlantsIntroductionCarnivory: the search for a definitionWhy have some plants turned to carnivory?Bladderworts (genus Utricularia)Sundews (genus Drosera)ReferencesBackground general readingFigure LegendsChapter 9 Asexual and Sexual ReproductionIntroductionAsexual ReproductionRootsStemsLeavesApomixisSexual ReproductionWind based pollinationInsect based pollinationPollinationMechanisms for improving cross fertilisationSelf incompatibility mechanismsTrifolium repensApple (Malus)Papaver rhoeasPetunia hybridaPetunia inflataSeed developmentReferencesFigure LegendsChapter 10 Plant growthIntroductionTypes of growthCell division and the cell cyclePolyploidy in plantsSeed formation and germinationThe dividing meristemFlower developmentVascular cambium and secondary growthIntercalary meristemCell deathPlant growth regulators and cell growthReferencesFigure LegendsChapter 11 Plant MovementIntroductionTropism and nastic movementsTropic movementsNastic movementsCircumnutationReferencesFigure LegendsChapter 12 Plants and stressIntroductionAdaptations to drought stressCrassulacean acid metabolismC4 photosynthesisResurrection plantsSalt stressFlooding stress and anoxiaCold stressAdaptations to heat stressReferencesChapter 13 Plant senses and perceiving the worldIntroductionSensing light (sight)ProtochlorophyllidePhytochromesCryptochromeSensing timeCircadian clockPhotoperiodismSensing touch (feeling)Sensing chemicals (taste)Communicating (smell)Sensing sounds (hearing)ReferencesTable 1. Ratios of red to far-red light in different environments. The data is based on that reported by Hopkins (1999)Figure Legends.Chapter 14 Seed dispersal, dormancy and germinationIntroductionSeed dispersalGravity-mediated dispersalWind-mediated dispersalWater-mediated dispersalAnimal-mediated dispersalImportance of post-dispersal mechanismsDormancy and germinationRecalcitrant seedsDormant seedsFactors governing dormancy and germinationPresence of germination inhibitorsPresence of inhibitory tissuesPresence of germination promotersReferencesFigure LegendsChapter 15 Interactions with the Animal KingdomIntroductionAnimal mediated pollinationMimicry in plantsBatesian mimicryMullerian mimicryAggressive mimicrySeed dispersal and food reserves: the role of humansReferencesFigure LegendsChapter 16 Plant defencesIntroductionPhysical defence structuresThe cuticleThe cell wallThe cell wall as a passive barrierThe cell wall as an active barrierPoisons by injection or touchChemical defencesTerpenesNitrogen-containing organic compoundsCyanogenic glycosidesGlycosinolatesLectinsAlkaloidsDefence reactions and signal pathwaysJasmonic acidSalicylic acidSystemin.PhytoalexinsAllelopathyRecognising selfMimicry and the enrolment of other organisms for protectionReferencesFigure LegendsChapter 17 Plants and MedicinesIntroductionDoctrine of signaturesViper's bugloss (Echium vulgare)EthnobotanyThe origins of aspirinThe origins of antimalarial drugsSt John's Wort (Hypericum spp.)Natural alternatives to ViagraNatural treatments for AIDSA cure for certain cancersSustainable development of medicines from plantsReferencesFigure legendsChapter 18 Plant Tissue Culture and the Rise of Plant BiotechnologyIntroductionThe development of plant tissue culture mediaComponents of the mediumMajor elementsMinor elementsCarbohydratesVitaminsPlant growth regulatorsTissue culture sterilityTypes of plant tissue cultureApplications of plant tissue cultureReferencesFigure legends.Chapter 19 Remarkable PlantsIntroductionInsect mimicry in the OrchidaceaeThe Venus FlytrapThe oldest and biggest plants in the worldTallest plantsCycadsWelwitschia mirabilis and Ephedra viridisThe Castor bean plantGarlicTheobroma cacaoWheat and agricultureReferencesFigure legends. Index
Having first been excited by the complexity and beauty of the plant kingdom as a student in Cambridge, Peter Scott is now Senior Lecturer in Plant Biology at the University of Sussex, where his research interests include orchids, resurrection plants and helping students to understand the wonder of the natural world around them.
This book, with Scott's enthusiasm and clear writing style, offers a refreshing approach to introductory plant biology. Recommended. (CHOICE, March 2009) "Author Peter Scott's approach is to present basic concepts of plant physiology and development in an enthusiastic and engaging manner. Hence, he tries to use his passion for his subject to be an effective teacher, and his enthusiasm is evident throughout the book. One of the clear strengths of this book are the high quality color diagrams. I enjoyed reading ... and came away with good ideas for new approaches to teaching topics in plant biology. The book could be useful in a number of courses in botany and plant biology at the freshman and sophomore level." (Plant Science Bulletin, Winter 2008)