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Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic, and Environmental Implications

By: Ismar Borges De Lima(Editor), Walter Leal-Filho(Editor)


Paperback | Sep 2015 | #230743 | ISBN-13: 9780128023280
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NHBS Price: £104.00 $137/€118 approx

About this book

Rare Earths elements are composed of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table. Scandium and yttrium have similar properties, with mineral assemblages, and are therefore referred alike in the literature. Although abundant in the planet surface, the Rare Earths are not found in concentrated forms, thus making them economically valued as they are so challenging to obtain.

Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic and Environmental Implications provides an interdisciplinary orientation to the topic of Rare Earths with a focus on technical, scientific, academic, economic, and environmental issues. Part I of book deals with the Rare Earths Reserves and Mining, Part II focuses on Rare Earths Processes and High-Tech Product Development, and Part III deals with Rare Earths Recycling Opportunities and Challenges. The chapters provide updated information and priceless analysis of the theme, and they seek to present the latest techniques, approaches, processes and technologies that can reduce the costs of compliance with environmental concerns in a way it is possible to anticipate and mitigate emerging problems.


    List of Contributors
        Chapter 1. An Overview of the Usefulness and Strategic Value of Rare Earth Metals
            1. Critical Rare Earths
            2. The Criticality Issue
            3. Occurrences, Mining, and Production
            4. Applications
            5. Price Development and Consequences
            6. Politics and Policies
            7. Where we are Today
        Part I. Rare Earths Reserves and Mining
            Chapter 2. An Overview of Chinese Rare Earth Export Restrictions and Implications
                1. Introduction
                2. Case against China in WTO on REE Export Restrictions
                3. International Trade in Rare Earth Elements and China's Role
                4. Rare Earth Export Restrictions of China
                5. World Trade Organization Ruling and Implications of Chinese Export Restrictions
                6. Conclusion
            Chapter 3. Rare Earth Production, Regulatory USA/International Constraints and Chinese Dominance: The Economic Viability Is Bounded by Geochemistry and Value Chain Integration
                1. History
                2. The Status Quo Does Not Work
                3. Rare Earth Independence
                4. Conclusion
            Chapter 4. Potentiality of Rare Earth Elements in Brazil
                1. Introduction
                2. Methodology
                3. Geological Aspects of REE Deposits
                4. Discussion and Conclusions
            Chapter 5. A Description of the World-Class Rare Earth Element Deposit, Tanbreez, South Greenland
                1. Introduction
                2. Geological Setting
                3. Methods
                4. Structure and Mineralogy of the Kakortokite Body
                5. Boundaries of the Kakortokite Body
                6. Size of the Kakortokite Body
                7. Ore Grade and Ore Separation
                8. Conclusion
            Chapter 6. Sustainable Development Criteria and Indicators for the Assessment of Rare Earth Element Mining Projects
                1. Introduction
                2. Sustainability Indicators
                3. Stakeholder Communication and Social License to Operate
                4. Sustainable Development Criteria and Indicators for REE Mining Projects
                5. Findings and Conclusions
            Chapter 7. Framework for Sustainable Mining of Rare Earth Elements
                1. Introduction
                2. Framework for SD of REE Mining Projects
                3. Application of Generic Framework in REE Sustainable Mining
                4. Conclusions
            Chapter 8. Rare Earth Underground Mining Approaches with Respect to Radioactivity Control and Monitoring Strategies
                1. Introduction
                2. Methodology
                3. Radioactive Decay Chains: Importance of Radon
                4. Radiation Units and Occupational Exposure Limits
                5. Impact of Radon and Progeny on Human Health
                6. Radon Dispersion in a Rare Earth Underground Mine
                7. Radon and Progeny Restriction Evaluations
                8. Discussion
                9. Conclusions
            Chapter 9. China’s Rare Earth Resources, Mineralogy, and Beneficiation
                1. China’s Rare Earth Resources and Production
                2. China’s Rare Earth Mines
                3. Beneficiation and Extraction Techniques of China’s REO
                4. Conclusions
        Part II. Rare Earths Processes and High-Tech Product Development
            Chapter 10. The Role of Rare Earth Supply Risk in Low-Carbon Technology Innovation
                1. Introduction
                2. Methodology
                3. Offshore Wind Turbines
                4. Advanced Technology Vehicles
                5. Impact of Rare Earth Price Volatility on Low-Carbon Technologies' Manufacturers
                6. Conclusions
            Chapter 11. Extraction Behavior of Scandium From a Refractory Nickel Laterite Ore During the Pressure Acid Leaching Process
                1. Introduction
                2. Experimental
                3. Results
                4. Discussion
                5. Conclusion
            Chapter 12. Leaching Rare Earth Elements from Bauxite Residue Using Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquids
                1. Introduction
                2. Background: Ionic Liquids in Metal Processing
                3. Experimental
                4. Results
                5. Conclusions
            Chapter 13. Electrodeposition of Rare Earth Metals from Ionic Liquids
                1. Introduction
                2. Literature Review on the Electrodeposition of Rare Earth Metals From ILS
                3. Lanthanum Electrodeposition in the IL BMP-TFSI
                4. Conclusions
            Chapter 14. Extraction of Lanthanides from Spent Polishing Agent
                1. Introduction
                2. Experimental
                3. Results
                4. Conclusion
            Chapter 15. A Critical Evaluation of Solubility of Rare Earth Oxides in Molten Fluorides
                1. Introduction
                2. State of the Art
                3. The Role Played by the Different Factors
                4. The Implication of Improving the Properties of the Melts
                5. Conclusions and Future Work
            Chapter 16. Hyperspectral Rare Earth Element Mapping of Three Outcrops at the Fen Complex, Norway: Calcitic, Dolomitic, and Ankeritic Carbonatites
                1. Introduction
                2. Geological Setting
                3. Materials and Methods
                4. Results
                5. Discussion
                6. Conclusion
        Part III. Rare Earth Recycling and Environmental Issues: Challenges and Advances
            Chapter 17. An Analysis of the Environmental Impacts of the Exploitation of Rare Earth Metals
                1. Introduction
                2. Conclusion
            Chapter 18. Environmental Legislation and Best Practice in the Emerging European Rare Earth Element Industry
                1. Introduction
                2. Methods
                3. Environmental and Health Hazards Associated with REE Mining and Processing
                4. Main EU Environmental Legislation to Support the REE Industry
                5. Evaluation of EU Legislation with Reference to International Legislation and Practice
                6. Conclusions
            Chapter 19. Rare Earths Industry and Eco-management: A Critical Review of Recycling and Substitutes
                1. Introduction
                2. The Environmental-Economic Values of Rare Earths: Tradeoffs Case?
                3. Rare Earth Recycling and Supply Risk Alleviation
                4. Challenges in Recycling the Rare Earths: The Need for Fully Integrated Routes
                5. Current Recycling Cases of Rees
                6. Conclusion
            Chapter 20. Neodymium Use and Recycling Potential
                1. Introduction
                2. Results
                3. Discussion
                4. Conclusions
            Chapter 21. Leaching of Rare Earth Elements: Review of Past and Present Technologies
                1. Introduction
                2. Leaching Technologies in Primary REE Production
                3. Leaching Technologies in New and Upcoming Secondary REE Resources
                4. Recent Progress and New Leaching Technologies for REE Extraction
                5. Conclusions
            Chapter 22. Simultaneous Electrochemical Recovery of Rare Earth Elements and Iron from Magnet Scrap: A Theoretical Analysis
                1. Introduction
                2. Thermodynamic Evaluations
                3. Discussion on Selective Electrochemical Recovery of REEs
                4. Conclusions
            Chapter 23. Metal-Organic Frameworks in the Field of Liquid Adsorption: Recovery of Rare Earths With Functionalized MIL-101(Cr)
                1. Introduction
                2. Experimental Section
                3. Results and Discussion
                4. Conclusion
            Chapter 24. Rare Earth Extraction from NdFeB Magnets and Rare Earth Oxides Using Aluminum Chloride/Fluoride Molten Salts
                1. Introduction
                2. Thermodynamic Considerations
                3. Experiments and Results
                4. Conclusion
    Additional Case Study on Mineralogy and Beneficiation of Ree in Mongolia
        Chapter 25. Mineralogy and Beneficiation of Vein-Type Apatite Rare Earth Element Ore from Mushgia Khudag, Mongolia
            1. Introduction
            2. Geology of Mushgia Khudag REE Deposit
            3. Sampling and Methods
            4. Geochemical and Mineralogical Characteristics
            5. Beneficiation Studies
            6. Conclusions
    Conclusion Chapter
        Chapter 26. Highlights on Rare Earths: Research Advances, Possibilities, Challenges, And Trends Based on Authors' Findings and Views
            Highlights on Rare Earth Reserves and Mining: Part I
            Rare Earth Processes and High-Tech Product Development: Part II
            Rare Earth Recycling and Environmental Issues: Challenges and Advances: Part III

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