Ficus sect. Pharmacosycea (Moraceae) includes neotropical species distributed from northern Mexico to northern Argentina, characterized by terrestrial (rarely hemi-epiphytic) monoecious species with one pair of waxy glands in the axils of the basal lateral veins, syconia that are axillary and generally solitary, three basal bracts, and staminate flowers with two stamens. The section comprises three subsections: F. subsect. Carautaea, hemi-epiphytic species with petiole periderm persistent (one species); F. subsect. Petenenses, terrestrial species with petiole periderm flaking off (15 species); and F. subsect. Bergianae, terrestrial species with petiole periderm persistent (19 species). We reviewed protologues, type specimens, and more than 7000 herbarium specimens to compare morphological characters and conducted fieldwork. The work resulted in the recognition of 35 species including 11 names previously used as synonyms (F. aequatorialis, F. crassivenosa, F. krugiana, F. macrosyce, F. mexicana, F. santanderana, F. segoviae, F. sodiroi, F. torresiana, F. ulei, and F. vermifuga) and five recently described new species (F. carvajalii, F. crateriformis, F. dewolfii, F. ernanii, and F. latipedunculata). Neotypes are designated for the names F. guapoi and F. guapoi var. minor.