An up-to-date account of the bryophytes of Israel and some adjacent regions. Summarizing over 20 years of research by Illana Herrnstadt and the late C.Clara Heyn of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Helene Bischler and Suzanne Jovet-Ast of the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, it is mainly based on the extensive collections assembled during those years and kept in the Herbarium of the Hebrew University and in the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. Despite its small area, this region has been found to have an unexpected diversity of bryophytes. The bryophyte flora of Israel consists of 259 taxa – 220 of mosses and 39 of liverworts – comprising 9% of the described flora of Irael. 87 taxa were recorded in Irael for the first time during the preparation of this Flora.