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The Caspian Sea region is important to global and regional environmental security. New geopolitical and economic conditions have created a mix of competition, reluctant collaboration, and legal, political, economic and ideological wrangling. There is intense debate on how the Caspian and its resources should be divided between the littoral states and how the resources are to be developed. Development of the area's immense hydrocarbon potential poses a risk to the unique and fragile ecosystem. The issue is extremely complex, and vital economic, political and environmental interests are involved. This book provides scientific assessments of the environmental threats in the region, articulates the standpoints of the various stakeholders from the littoral states, and presents the diverse approaches of interest groups from other nations currently involved in Caspian developments. Key to the work is the way it addresses the almost untouched questions of how to foster cooperation in resource sharing and environmental security issues and how to structure international cooperation to ensure its effectiveness.
Preface; W. Ascher, N. Mirovitskaya. Map of the Caspian Sea Region. List of Abbreviations and Acronyms. 1. Introduction; N. Mirovitskaya, W. Ascher. Part A: What is at Stake in the Caspian: Development versus Environment? 2. Environmental Change and Human Security in the Caspian Region: Threats, Vulnerability and Response Strategies; M.S. Soroos. 3. International Good Governance and Civilized Conduct among the Caspian States: Oil and Gas as Lever for Prosperity or Conflict; T. Waelde. 4. Regional Developmental Requirements and the Role of Caspian Development; K. Atanesyan. 5. Ecological Consequences of Oil and Gas Development; I.S. Zonn. 6. New Methods for Managing Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations; A.V. Frolov. Part B: Caspian Geopolitics. 7. The Geopolitics of the Region; B. Kuniholm. 8. Security and the Environment in the Caspian Sea; S.T. Hunter. 9. Security Problems in the Caucasus; A. Rondeli. 10. The International Politics of Energy in het Caspian Sea Basin: Russia, Turkey and the Pipeline Project; A. Volodin. Part C: Law and Development. 11. The Caspian and International Law: Like Oil and Water? C.P.R. Romano. 12. Basic Legal Issues of the Management of Natural Resources of the Caspian Sea; A.N. Vylegjanin. 13. Caspian Legal Regime: Dynamics of Kazakhstan's Position; R.N. Gaisin. 14. The 'Tug of War' in the Caspian: Legal Positions of the Coastal States; S.V. Vinogradov. Part D: The Role of Civil Society & Scientific Institutions. 15. Environment and the Development of Civil Society in the Caspian Region: The Role of NGOs; K. Watters. 16. How NGOs Abandoned Governance in the Caspian Region; E.W. Sievers. 17. The Political Role of Civil Society in Georgia; Ivlian Haindrava. 18. The State of Scientific Research on the Caspian Environment: Russian Data; I. Zonn. Part E: Prospects of Effective International Cooperation. 19. Regional Cooperation: Lessons for the Caspian Sea; E. Busek. 20. Technodiplomacy and Environmental Cooperation: Lessons for the Caspian; W. Ascher, N. Mirovitskaya. 21. Applying Lessons from the Aral Sea Basin: The Role of Non-State Actors; E.S. Weinthal. 22. National, Subnational and International Politics: Environmental Regime-Building in the Caspian Sea; D.W. Blum. 23. Caspian Environment Programme: Prospects for Regime Formation and Effectiveness; E.W. Sievers. Part F: Conclusions. 24. Moving toward International Cooperation in the Caspian Region: Insights from the Workshop; N. Mirovitskaya, W. Ascher. Index