There have been major changes in the heat content and ice cover of the Arctic Ocean since 1990. Year after year, this observational evidence underscores the likelihood that predictions of global climatic effects will turn out to be true. Changes in the freshwater flow from the Arctic Ocean may have very significant consequences for humanity, including those alive today. It is vital that we develop the capability to predict the magnitude of such effects with far greater certainty, as well as the probability of their occurrence within a giver time frame. To do so, we need the internationally organised commitment of scientific labour and funding. This book has been written by many of the world's most knowledgable polar oceanographers, meteorologists and hydrologists, takes full account of the latest results and discusses their significance. It draws together assessments by many specialists to present an integrated view of possible future changes in the climate of the Northern hemisphere.
Preface. Acknowledgements. Summary Poem. Introduction. 1. Oceanic freshwater fluxes in the climate system; A. Stigebrandt. 2. Global atmospheric circulation patterns and relationships to Arctic freshwater fluxes; J.E. Walsh. 3. Atmospheric components of the Arctic Ocean freshwater balance and their interannual variability; R.G. Barry, M.C. Serreze. 4. Hydroclimatology of the Arctic drainage basin; L.C. Bowling, P.D. Lettenmaier, B.V. Matheussen. 5. The Arctic Ocean's freshwater budget: sources, storage and export; E.C. Carmack. 6. The Arctic Ocean freshwater budget of a climate General Circulation Model; H. Cattle, D. Cresswell. 7. Atmospheric components of the Arctic Ocean hydrologic budget assessed from Rawinsonde data; M.C. Serreze, R.G. Barry. 8. Reanalyses depictions of the Arctic atmospheric moisture budget; D.H. Bromwich, R.I. Cullather, M.C. Serreze. 9. Moisture transport to Arctic drainage basins relating to significant precipitation events and cyclogenesis; J.R. Gyakum. 10. Atmospheric climate models: simulation of the Arctic Ocean fresh water budget components; V.M. Kattsov, J.E. Walsh, A. Rinke, K. Dethloff. 11. Discharge observation networks in Arctic regions: computation of the river runoff into the Arctic Ocean, its seasonality and variability; W.E. Grabs, F. Portmann, T. de Couet. 12. Arctic river flow: a review of contributing areas; T.D. Prowse, P.O. Flegg. 13. The dynamics of river water inflow to the Arctic Ocean; I.A. Shiklomanov, A.I. Shiklomanov, R.B. Lammers, B.J. Peterson, C.J. Vorosmarty. 14. River input of water, sediment, major ions, nutrients and trace metals from Russian territory to the Arctic Ocean; V.V. Gordeev. 15. The dispersion of Siberian river flows into coastal waters: meteorological, hydrological and hydrochemical aspects; I.P. Semiletov, N.I. Savelieva, G.E. Weller, I.I. Pipko, S.P. Pugach, A.Yu. Gukov, L.N. Vasilevskaya. 16. The variable climate of the Mackenzie River basin: its water cycle and fresh water discharge; R.E. Stewart. 17. Arctic estuaries and ice: a positive-negative estuarine couple; R.W. Macdonald. 18. Satellite views of the Arctic Ocean freshwater balance; D.A. Rothrock, R. Kwok, D. Groves. 19. Tracer studies of the Arctic freshwater budget; P. Schlosser, B. Ekwurzel, S. Khatiwala, B. Newton, W. Maslowski, S. Pfirman. 20. Exchanges of freshwater through the shallow straits of the North American Arctic; H. Melling. 21. The transformations of Atlantic water in the Arctic Ocean and their significance for the freshwater budget; B. Rudels, H.J. Friedrich. 22. Modelling the variability of exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic seas; R. Gerdes. 23. Sea ice growth, melt and modeling: a survey; M. Steele M., G.M. Flato. 24. Fresh water freezing/melting cycle in the Arctic Ocean; G.V. Alekseev, L.V. Bulatov, V.F. Zakharov. Subject Index.