The Galápagos Islands are renown for their unique flora and fauna, inspiring Charles Darwin in the elaboration of his theory of evolution. Yet in his Voyage of the Beagle, published in 1839, Darwin also remarked on the fascinating geology and volcanic origin of these enchanted Islands. Since then, the Galápagos continue to provide scientists with inspiration and invaluable information about ocean island formation and evolution, mantle plumes, and the deep Earth.
Motivated by an interdisciplinary Chapman Conference held in the Islands, this AGU volume provides cross-disciplinary collection of recent research into the origin and nature of ocean islands, from their deepest roots in Earth's mantle, to volcanism, surface processes, and the interface between geology and biodiversity.
Volume highlights include:
- Case studies in biogeographical, hydrological, and chronological perspective
- Understanding the connection between geological processes and biodiversity
- Synthesis of decades of interdisciplinary research in physical processes from surface to deep interior of the earth
- In-depth discussion of the concept of the island acting as a natural laboratory for earth scientists
- Integrated understanding of the Galápagos region from a geological perspective
Collectively, The Galápagos: A Natural Laboratory for the Earth Sciences presents case studies illustrating the Galápagos Archipelago as a dynamic natural laboratory for the earth sciences. The Galápagos: A Natural Laboratory for the Earth Sciences would be of special interest to a multidisciplinary audience in earth sciences, including petrologists, volcanologists, geochronologists, geochemists, and geobiologists.
Foreword: Darwin's Perspective "Randal Keynes"
Foreword: The Galapagos as a National Laboratory "Peter Grant"
1. Introduction "Eric Mittelstaedt, Noemi d'Ozouville, Karen S. Harpp, and David W. Graham "
2. Contrasting Volcanism in Hawai'i and Galapagos "Michael P. Poland"
3. Galapagos and Easter: A Tale of Two Hotspots "Karen S. Harpp, Paul S. Hall, and Matthew G. Jackson "
4. Eruption Rates for Fernandina Volcano: A New Chronology at the Galapagos Hotspot Center
5. Galapagos Magma Chambers "Dennis J. Geist, George Bergantz, and William W. Chadwick, Jr. "
6. The Geology and Geochemistry of Isla Floreana, Galapagos: A Different Type of Late-Stage Ocean Island Volcanism "Karen S. Harpp, Dennis J. Geist, Alison M. Koleszar, Branden Christensen, John Lyons, ""Melissa Sabga, and Nathan Rollins"
7. Plate Tectonics, Evolution, and the Survival of Species: A Modern Day Hotspot "Godfrey Merlen "
8. A Paleogeographic Model of the Galapagos Islands and Biogeographical and Evolutionary Implications "Dennis J. Geist, Howard Snell, Heidi Snell, Charlotte Goddard, and Mark D. Kurz "
9. Hydrogeology of the Galapagos Archipelago: An Integrated and Comparative Approach Between Islands "Sophie Violette, Noemi d'Ozouville, Alexandre Pryet, Benoit Deffontaines, Jerome Fortin, and Mathilde Adelinet"
10. Controls on the Hydrological and Topographic Evolution of Shield Volcanoes and Volcanic Ocean Islands "Anne J. Jefferson, Ken L. Ferrier, J. Taylor Perron, and Ricardo Ramalho "
11. Climate and the Global Reach of the Galapagos Archipelago: State of the Knowledge "Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Raghu Murtugudde, and W. Brechner Owens"
12. Assessment of the Chile 2010 and Japan 2011 Tsunami Events in the Galapagos Islands "Willington Renteria and Patrick Lynett"
13. Patterns in Galapagos Magmatism Arising from the Upper Mantle Dynamics of Plume-Ridge Interaction "Garrett Ito and Todd Bianco "
14. Variations in Crustal Thickness, Plate Rigidity, and Volcanic Processes Throughout The Northern Galapagos Volcanic Province "Eric Mittelstaedt, Adam S. Soule, Karen S. Harpp, and Daniel Fornari "
15. Plume-Ridge Interaction in the Galapagos: Perspectives from Wolf, Darwin, and Genovesa Islands "Karen S. Harpp, Karl R. Wirth, Rachel Teasdale, Susanna Blair, Leslie Reed, Jay Barr, Janna Pistiner, and Daniel Korich"
16. A Preliminary Survey of the Northeast Seamounts, Galapagos Platform "Christopher W. Sinton, Karen S. Harpp, and David M. Christie"
17. Effect of Variations in Magma Supply on the Crustal Structure of Mid-Ocean Ridges: Insights from the Western Galapagos Spreading Center "Juan Pablo Canales, Robert A. Dunn, Garrett Ito, Robert S. Detrick, and Valenti Sallares"
18. Helium Isotope Variations and Mantle Plume-Spreading Ridge Interactions Along the Galapagos Spreading Center "David W. Graham, Barry B. Hanan, John E. Lupton, Kaj Hoernle, Reinhard Werner, David M. Christie, and John M. Sinton"