Most wool carder and resin bees are relatively large and have a characteristic wasp-like colour pattern with yellow or off-white spots and stripes on a black background on the head, thorax, and abdomen. In the field, they are easily recognized by their rapid, characteristic hoverfly-like flight. The males are often armed with teeth, spines, and lobes with which they maintain their territory and aggressively defend it against intruders. Although most species are so conspicuous, there is no modern illustrated identification guide that covers all of Europe and includes the Mediterranean region with its rich bee fauna. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive overview of all 87 species of non-parasitic wool carder and resin bees of the tribe Anthidiini occurring in Europe and western Turkey. Morphology and colouration are described for all species, as well as floral relationships and distribution. Distribution maps are provided for all species. The descriptions are supported by 618 colour photographs of general appearance and body details important for identification. The identification key is illustrated with more than 150 line drawings, so that even less experienced bee identifiers are able to identify wool carder and resin bees down to species level. The book provides the necessary basis for further studies on wool carder and resin bees and should help to better understand their role in pollination and other ecological functions – and ultimately contribute to the conservation of these beautiful animals.