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This book was first published in 1984. There are many micro-habitats in built up areas, often subject to strong environmental pressures such as atmospheric and water pollution, frequent disturbance, trampling, nutrient or water scarcity, etc. In Urban Ecology, Dianne Smith uses such features as footpaths, walls, gravestones, gardens, compost heaps and derelict land to investigate the effects of these pressures and to demonstrate other ecological properties of often isolated habitats.
1. Disturbed areas
2. Man-made niches