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About this book
About this book
The prospect of future climate change has stimulated research into the physiological responses of plants to stress. Water is a key factor controlling the distribution and abundance of plants in nature and the efficient uptake and subsequent transport of water within the plant is critical in hot, dry regions.
This book, based on a meeting which focused on the failure of the hydraulic pathway within the xylem, brings together contributions from a range of experts who have worked on the cavitation of water in the transport system. The phenomenon of cavitation, discovered only in the 1960s, is now becoming recognised as being widespread and, whilst its ecological significance is a matter for further research, many scientists consider than embolism in the xylem predisposes plants to further water stress. Cavitation and refilling may, therefore, hold the key to vegetational response to climatic warming and drying.
This book will provide a valuable compendium of information for those working in the plant and environmental sciences as well as for those whose interests lie in the more applied disciplines of agriculture and forestry.
First published in 1993.
Preface; 1. Global change and plant water relations P. G. Jarvis; 2. Cavitation. A review: past, present and future J. A. Milburn; 3. Effect of cavitation on the status of water in plants J. J. Oertli; 4. Stomatal control of xylem cavitation H. G. Jones and R. A. Sutherland; 5. Refilling of embolized xylem J. Grace; 6. Interpretation of the dynamics of plant water potential M. A. Dixon and R. W. Johnson; 7. A proposed mechanism of freezing and thawing in conifer xylem D. J. Robson and J. A. Petty; 8. Winter xylem embolism and spring recovery in Betula cordifolia, Fagus grandifolia, Abies balsamea and Picea rubens J. Sperry; 9. Drought resistance strategies and vulnerability to cavitation of some Mediterranean sclerophyllous trees S. Salleo and M. A. Lo Gullo; 10. Relations between sap velocity and cavitation in broad-leaved trees M. Borghetti, P. De Angelis, A. Raschi, G. E. Scarascia Mugnozza, R. Tognetti and R. Valentini; 11. NMR and water transport in plants S. Ratkovic and G. Bacic; 12. The symplast radial-axial water transport in plants: an NMR approach A. V. Anisimov; 13. Reproductive adaptation by polyembryony of coniferous forest trees under climatic stress is revealed by the metabolism of tritiated water D. J. Durzan; 14. A heat balance method for measuring sap flow in small trees C. Valancogne and Z. Nasr; 15. Heat pulse measurements on beech in relation to weather conditions J. Heimann and W. Stickan; 16. Extremely fast changes of xylem water flow rate in tall trees caused by atmospheric, soil and mechanic factors J. Cermak and J. Kucera; 17. Water relations and water transport in coppice vs. single stem Querus cerris L. trees M. Sabatti, G. E. Scarascia Mugnozza, R. Valentini and A. Del Lungo; 18. Environmental control of water flux through Maritime pine D. Loustau and A. Granier; 19. Evaluation of transpiration of apple trees and measurement of daily course of water flow within the main branches of walnut trees C. Valancogne, T. Ameglio, L. Angelocci and P. Cruiziat; 20. Estimating citrus orchard canopy resistance from measurements of actual and potential transpiration Y. Cohen, M. Fuchs and S. Moreshet; 21. Stomatal conductance in tomato responds to air humidity I. Ferreira; 22. Water relations of Canarian laurel forest trees R. Losch; 23. Watering regime and photosynthetic performance of Gunnera tinctoria Mirbel G. J. Campbell and B. A. Osborne; 24. Water relations and ultrasound emissions in Douglas fir-seedings infected with xylem pathogens M. Pisante, N. Moretti and S. Frisullo; 25. Diurnal fruit shrinkage: a model A. Berger and G. Selles; 26. Analysis of pressure-volume curves by non-linear regressions M. N. Anderson, C. R. Jensen and R. Losch; 27. Determination of the amount of apoplastic water and other water relations parameters in conifer needles K. Gross and W. Koch; 28. The assessment of water status in chilled plants A. Pardossi, P. Vernieri and F. Tognoni; 29. An artificial osmotic cell: a model system for studying phenomena of negative pressure and for determining concentrations of solutes H. Heydt and E. Steudle; 30. Measurement of water and solute uptake into excised roots at positive and negative roots pressures H. Heydt and E. Steudle; Index.