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About this book
About this book
Discussing the latest processes involved in researching yield generation, Wheat: Ecology and Physiology of Yield Determination will help you design various types of crop production systems for maximum yield. Featuring information on developing high-yielding, low-input, and quality-oriented systems, this book offers you both physiological and ecological approaches that will help you understand the crop as well as increase its production. Discussing aspects of wheat growth for specific regions around the world, Wheat provides you with information that will improve the size and quality of your crops, including: how temperature, vernalization, and the photoperiod affect the development of wheat using the correct amount of nitrogen fertilizers for wheat crops an explanation of the reproduction and nitrogen cycles of wheat how elements and conditions such as lipids, proteins, nitrogen, and climate enhance grain quality estimating and determining optimal sowing dates examining factors that may affect wheat yield-density relationships, such as planting arrangement and date of sowing preventing seed decay and examining effects of mildews and leaf blights examining historical trends of the crop to see what further research needs to be done You'll also receive information on the genetic gains in wheat research that are improving the physiological traits and numerical components of this essential grain. Within Wheat, you'll find data and methods from international experts in the field that will improve the yield and growth of the world's most important crop.
Contents About the Editors Contributors Preface Part One: Wheat Physiology Chapter 1. An Introduction to the Physiological-Ecological Analysis of Wheat Yield Worldwide Importance of Wheat A Niche for This Book Objectives Chapter 2. Wheat Development Introduction Dynamics of Initiation and Appearance of Vegetative and Reproductive Organs Effects of Major Factors on the Duration of Developmental Phases Chapter 3. Physiological and Numerical Components of Wheat Yield Introduction Factors Affecting Kernal Number Factors Affecting Individual Kernal Weight Summary and Strategies for Future Yield Improvement Chapter 4. Nitrogen As Determinant of Wheat Growth and Yield Introduction Nitrogen in the Soil Nitrogen Metabolism in the Plant Nitrogen Effects at the Plant and Crop Level Optimization of Nitrogen Fertilization Water Supply and Nitrogen Assimilation Chapter 5. Grain Quality and Its Physiological Determinants Introduction What Makes Wheat So Special --The Wheat Proteins The Nonprotein Components of the Wheat Grain How Do Wheat Grains Grow Grain Quality Is the Result of Interactions Between Grain Components Conclusions Part II: Wheat Ecology Chapter 6. Effects of Sowing Date and the Determination of Optimum Sowing Date Introduction Sowing and Establishment Growth and Development Maturation and Harvest Experimental Estimation of Optimum Sow Dates Wheat in England Wheat in Australia Other Regions Determination of Optimal Sowing Dates Chapter 7. Plant Density and Distribution As Modifiers of Growth and Yield Introduction Ecophysiological Basis of Density Response The Effect of Resources on Crop Density Response The Effect of Sowing Date and Plant Arrangement Mathematical Relationships Between Plant Yield and Density Concluding Remarks Chapter 8. Wheat Yield As Affected by Weeds Introduction Weeds of Wheat Yield Losses Competition Justification for Weed Removal Effects on Yield Components and Grain Quality Phytotoxin Effects of Herbicides Chapter 9. Wheat Growth, Yield, and Quality As Affected by Insect Herbivores Introduction Yield Responses to Herbivory Functional Classification of Herbivores Key Pests Other Pests Population-Level Responses to Herbivory Concluding Remarks Chapter 10. Wheat Yield As Affected by Disease Introduction Physiological Processes Interrupted by Wheat Pathogens Diversion of Foodstuffs to Abnormal Uses (Bunt and Smuts) Scab--An Exception Chapter 11. Wheat As a Polyculture Component (Santiago J. Sarandon) Introduction How to Measure Intercropping Performance Effect of Mixtures on Plant Diseases Effect of Mixtures on Resource Use Effect of Mixtures on Grain Quality Intercropping Wheat with Other Species The Evaluation of Genotypes for Intercropping Future Research Needs Concluding Remarks Part III: Wheat Production Systems Chapter 12. Wheat Production in the Great Plains of North America Introduction Description of Wheat Production Systems Technological Factors That Have Increased Grain Yields in This Century Transformation of Wheat Production Systems in the Future Chapter 13. Wheat Cropping in Australia Introduction Wheat Climate and Soils Historic Changes in Wheat Yield Recent Changes in Wheat Yield Current Situation of Wheat Farming Challenges to Productivity Gain Wheat Research and Extension Future Perspectives Chapter 14. Wheat Production in Mediterranean Environments The Mediterranean Climate Wheat in the Mediterranean Environments Rotations Germplasm Concluding Remarks Chapter 15. Wheat Production Systems of the Pampas Introduction Climate and Soils: Major Constraints for Wheat Production Wheat Production Systems Future Perspectives Part IV: Breeding to Further Raise Wheat Yields Chapter 16. Genetic Gains in Wheat Yield and Associated Physiological Changes During the Twentieth Century Introduction Plant Breeding and Genetic Gains in Grain Yield Consequences of Breeding for Plant Height and Related Traits Plant Breeding and Biomass: Effects on Partitioning and Growth Genetic Improvements in Nitrogen and Phosphorus Economies Numerical Yield Components in Old and Modern Cultivars Conclusion Chapter 17. Physiological Traits That Increase the Yield Potential of Wheat Introduction Identifying Promising Traits Selecting for Promising Traits Concluding Remarks Chapter 18. Breeding Hybrid Wheat for Low-Yielding Environments Introduction Genotype-Stress Interaction The Hybrid Profile Genetic Diversity Is Paramount Intrapopulation Improvement Selection Within the Male Pool Heterosis and Plant Population X Row Width Interactions Hybrid Yield, Stability, and Response to Yield The Ideal Hybrid Chapter 19. Actual and Potential Contributions of Biotechnology to Wheat Breeding Introduction Molecular Markers, Maps, and Their Application Introgression of "Alien" Genes into Wheat by Chromosome Engineering Genetic Engineering of Wheat Conclusion Author Index Subject Index Reference Notes Included