This book is a revision of the author's thesis, completed at the Forest Research Institute in India in 1999 under the title Systematic Studies on the Woods of Family Legumes. It contains a general anatomical survey of woods of three subfamilies based on observations of about 300 samples belonging to 87 species spread over 40 genera. Particular focus is given to genera of the legume subfamilies Mimosoideae, Caesalpinoideae, and Papilionoidaea with detailed descriptions of habit, distribution, properties, and uses. A list of microscopic features as approved by the International Association of Wood Anatomists and microscopic features of individual species are tabulated as appendices. The discussion section focuses on the wider affinities of Leguminosae with other putatively related families from the point of wood structure, concluding that Leguminosae appears more closely related to Sapindaceae and Connaraceae than Rosaceae. Finally, ecological preferences as reflected in wood structure are explored, leading to the conclusion that vessel size and frequency indicate that Indian genera favour conductive efficiency of vessels over safety.