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The crayfish fauna of West Virginia consists of 23 species and several undescribed taxa. Most survey efforts documenting this fauna have been conducted in lotic waterways throughout the Appalachian plateau, Allegheny Mountains, and Ridge and Valley physiographic provinces. Bottomland forests, swamps, and marshes associated with large river floodplains such as the Ohio River floodplain historically have been under-surveyed, though these habitats harbor the richest primary burrowing crayfish fauna in West Virginia.
From the survey conducted between 2004 and 2009, nine species from four genera were documented inhabiting the floodplain. Zoogeography, biology, and conservation status is provided for the nine species encountered in the survey, as well as a review of crayfish collection methods and a dichotomous key to West Virginia Ohio River floodplain crayfish species.