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In the establishment of Calcutta Zoological Garden, certain factors played a decisive role for which one has to look back a few centuries when modern science was taking its shape. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it developed its ﬁrst root in the intellectual efflorescence of western countries. The following century was important as the formative period of the development of modem science.
When the idea of having a zoological garden in Calcutta was mooted, the veterinary science was in infancy. Its application in the development and management of a zoo then under the colonial government was really a challenge. Protection of animals and birds was perhaps of least concern to the then government. Nevertheless, it appears from the records that this garden became focus of worldwide zoo-related activities. The colonial governors general and administrators, local rulers, razas and zamindars along with common people supplemented toward its establishment.
In the centre of these activities was R.B. Sanyal. He dedicated his life for this cause. He had only one mission, i.e. to reduce pain and suffering of wild animals and birds in captivity. His contribution with the support of the colonial administrators is one of the finest examples of a holy "native-ruler" nexus. Needless to say that we are delighted to document such a co-operation which otherwise would have got lost in course of time.