Books  Sustainable Development  Environmental Law 

International Environmental Law and Policy for the 21st Century

Series: International Environmental Law (Martinus Nijhoff / Brill) Volume: 9

By: Ved P Nanda (Author), George Pring (Author)

E J Brill

Hardback | Oct 2012 | Edition: 2 | #218958 | ISBN-13: 9789004242869
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £187.00 $233/€217 approx

About this book

In the 21st century, anthropogenic (human-caused) environmental change is widespread and serious on the global, regional/transboundary, and local levels. Emphasizing the environmental, social, and human damage caused by non-sustainable development, International Environmental Law and Policy for the 21st Century, Second Revised Edition by Nanda and Pring, provides readers with an incisive and integrated approach to the political, economic, scientific, and technological realities and challenges facing international environmental law and policy today. This provocative new book offers innovative chapters on such crucial current imperatives as:
- the nature and scope of the challenge;
- first principles of international environmental law;
- environment and human rights;
- environment and the nexus of international trade, finance and debt; and
- the unfinished agenda.

Traditional subjects covered include the history of international environmental law, the law of the sea, international freshwater resources, cross-border air pollution, ozone depletion and climate change, the technology of chemicals manufacture and transport, disposal of hazardous waste, preservation ofand biodiversity, environmental impact analysis, and regulation of nuclear energy. International Environmental Law and Policy for the 21st Century also features a critical examination of the UN's activities on the environment, starting from the 1972 Stockholm Convention on the Environment, up to and including the 2012 Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development.

With new chapters devoted to critical energy and population issues, and a new section on corporate social responsibility, International Environmental Law & Policy for the 21st Century is an essential resource for students, scholars, lawyers, public officials, corporate decision-makers, and technical consultants concerned with environmental issues.



Part I: Introduction
Chapter One: International Environmental Law: The Nature and Scope of the Challenge
1.0: Introduction
1.1: The Sources or Bases of International Environmental Law
1.1.1: International Conventional Law
1.1.2: International Customary Law
1.1.3: General Principles of Law
1.1.4: Judicial Decisions
1.1.5: Scholarly Writings
1.1.6: New Sources of International Law

Chapter Two: The Fundamental Principles of International Environmental Law
2.0: Introduction
2.1 Fundamental Substantive Principles
2.1.1: State Sovereignty
2.1.2: “Good Neighborliness” – The Duty to Cooperate
2.1.3: The No-Harm Rule
2.1.4: Sustainable Development
2.1.5: Right to Development
2.1.6: Right to a Clean, Healthful Environment
2.1.7: Environmental Justice: Intergenerational and Intragenerational Equity
2.1.8: Equitable Utilization of Shared Resources
2.1.9: Conservation
2.1.10: The Common Heritage of Humankind - “The Global Commons”
2.1.11: The Common Concern of Humankind – Erga Omnes
2.1.12: Common but Differentiated Responsibilities
2.1.13: The Polluter-Pays Principle
2.1.14: State Responsibility and Liability
2.2 Fundamental Procedural Principles
2.2.1: Public Participation
2.2.2: Prior Notification, Consultation, and Negotiation Duties
2.2.3: The Prevention Principle
2.2.4: The Precautionary Principle
2.2.5: Duty to Do Environmental Impact Assessment
2.2.6: Duty to Adopt Effective National Law—The Duty to Enforce
2.2.7: The Integration Principle

Part II: Lawmaking
Chapter Three: The Early Years
3.0: Introduction
3.1: International Agreements
3.1.1: Early 20th Century Agreements
3.1.2: The 1909 Boundary Waters Treaty
3.1.3: Other Agreements
3.2: Case Law
3.2.1: Bering Sea Fur Seals Arbitration
3.2.2: The Trail Smelter Arbitration
3.2.3: The Corfu Channel Case
3.2.4: The Lac Lanoux Arbitration
3.2.5: The Japanese Fishermen Case
3.2.6: The 1958 US Pacific Nuclear Tests
3.2.7: Nuclear Tests Cases (Australia v. France and New Zealand v. France)
3.2.8: Pollution of Ciudad Juarez
3.2.9: The 1969 Gut Dam Case
3.2.10: Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion
3.2.11: Case Concerning the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project
3.2.12: The MOX Plant Case (Ireland v. UK)
3.2.13: Iron Rhine Railway Arbitration (Belg. v. Neth.)
3.2.14: Case Concerning Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay)
3.3: Appraisal

Chapter Four: The Next 40 Years: The Evolution of International Environmental Policy from 1972 to the Present
4.0: Introduction
4.1: The Stockholm Conference and Declaration
4.1.1: Analysis
4.1.2: Appraisal
4.2: The Post-Stockholm Period: The Flowering of UNEP
4.2.1: Introduction
4.2.2: Environmental Assessment
4.2.3: Environmental Management
4.2.4: Environmental Law
4.2.5: Appraisal
4.3: The Rio Conference on Environment and Development
4.3.1: Introduction
4.3.2: The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
4.3.3: Agenda 21
4.3.4: The Commission on Sustainable Development
4.3.5: Appraisal
4.4.: The Uneven Road from Rio to Rio (1992-2012)
4.4.1: The CSD and “Rio+5”
4.4.2: UNEP Reforms for the New Century
4.4.3: The 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development
4.4.4: “Rio+20” – the Return to Rio
4.5: International Environmental Law, Multilateral Environmental Agreements, and International Environmental Governance
4.5.1: UNEP and International Environmental Law
4.5.2: UNEP and Multilateral Environmental Agreements
4.5.3: UNEP and International Environmental Governance

Chapter Five: International Environmental Institutions and Organizations
5.0: Introduction
5.1: The United Nations “Family”
5.2: International Financial Organizations
5.3: Other International IGOs
5.4: Regional International IGOs
5.5: Nonstate Entities: NGOs and Business Interests
5.5.1: International NGOs
5.5.2: Multinational Corporations and Other Business Interests
5.5.3: Corporate Social Responsibility

Part III: The Key Issues
Chapter Six: Environmental Impact Assessment
6.0: Introduction
6.1: EIA Procedures: The Common Requirements
6.2: The Development of EIA Requirements in International Law
6.3: IFIs’ EIA Requirements
6.4: The Future of EIA

Chapter Seven: Energy and the Environment: An International Perspective
7.0: Introduction
7.1: Energy, Economic Development, and the Environment
7.1.1: Energy Availability and Usage and Economic Development
7.1.2: Tension Between Energy Generation and Consumption and the Environment
7.1.3: Energy and Related Trends
7.2: The Evolution of Energy and Environmental Law in an International Context
7.3: International Law Related to Energy and the Environment
7.3.1: Introduction
7.3.2: Nuclear Energy
7.3.3: Marine Oil Pollution from Ships
7.3.4: Energy Charter Treaty
7.4: Looking Ahead
7.4.1: Introduction
7.4.2: A New Paradigm for Regulating Energy? Global Energy Governance
7.5: Conclusion

Chapter Eight: Preservation
8.0: Introduction
8.1: Preservation Laws Prior to the 1970s
8.1.1: The Early Wildlife Laws
8.1.2: The Western Hemisphere Conservation Convention
8.2: Preservation Efforts: The Stockholm Era: 1972-1992
8.2.1: Ecosystems
8.2.2: Natural and Cultural Resources
8.2.3: Endangered Species
8.2.4: The Global Commons
8.3: Preservation Efforts: Rio and the 21st Century
8.3.1: The Convention on Biological Diversity
8.3.2: Forests
8.3.3: Desertification
8.4: Conclusion

Chapter Nine: International Freshwater Resources
9.0: Introduction
9.1: Development of Customary International Law
9.1.1: The Major Cases
9.1.2: The Key “Soft Law” Developments
9.2: The 1997 UN Convention on International Watercourses
9.2.1: Adoption of the “Ecosystem” Concept
9.2.2: Conflict Between the Principles of “Equitable Utilization” and “No Significant Harm”
9.2.3: Pollution Control
9.2.4: Other Important Provisions of the International Watercourses Convention
9.3: Bilateral, Multilateral, and Regional Regimes of International Freshwater Regulation
9.4: Groundwater
9.5: Conclusion

Chapter Ten: International Air Pollution
10.0: Introduction
10.1: Transboundary Air Pollution
10.1.1: Introduction
10.1.2: Customary International Law Governing Transboundary Air Pollution
10.1.3: Regional Treaty and Planning Regimes
10.2: Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
10.2.1: Introduction
10.2.2: The Problem
10.2.3: Evidence of Loss
10.2.4: Long-Term Consequences
10.2.5: Policy Implications
10.2.6: Prior to the 1985 Vienna Convention
10.2.7: The 1985 Vienna Ozone Convention
10.2.8: The 1987 Montreal Protocol and Subsequent Amendments
10.2.9: Developments in the United States and the European Union
10.2.10: Appraisal and Recommendations
10.3: Global Climate Change
10.3.1: Introduction
10.3.2: The “Greenhouse” Effect
10.3.3: Preventive Strategies and Problems
10.3.4: The Framework Convention on Climate Change
10.3.5: The Kyoto Protocol
10.3.6: Negotiating the Implementation of Kyoto 1998-2005
10.3.7: An Assessment of the Kyoto Protocol
10.3.8: Developing a Post-Kyoto Framework

Chapter Eleven: The Marine Environment
11.0: Introduction
11.1: Framework of the Convention
11.2: Contribution of the Convention to International Environmental Law
11.2.1: Environmental Assessment Provisions
11.2.2: Law-Making and Law Enforcement Provisions
11.2.3: Special Status of Developing States
11.2.4: Protection of Living Resources
11.2.5: Dispute Settlement Provisions
11.2.6: The Relationship of the Convention and Customary Law
11.2.7: Appraisal
11.3: International and Regional Conventions
11.3.1: Regional Conventions
11.3.2: International Conventions and Actions
11.4: International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea
11.5: Conclusion

Chapter Twelve: Hazardous Waste, Chemicals, and Technology
12.0: Introduction
12.1: The International Environmental Laws Governing Hazardous Waste
12.1.1: Developments Leading up to the Basel Convention
12.1.2: The Basel Convention
12.1.3: Post-Basel Developments: The “Banners” vs. the “Boosters” of Hazardous Waste Trade
12.2: International Controls on Chemicals
12.2.1: Introduction
12.2.2: The Beginnings: Voluntary International Chemical Control Effects
12.2.3: The Recent Development of Binding Chemical Treaties
12.3: International Controls on Hazardous Technologies, Industries, and Activities
12.4: Conclusion

Chapter Thirteen: Biotechnology in Food and the Biosafety Protocol
13.0: Introduction
13.1: Background
13.1.1: The Process
13.1.2: The Controversy
13.2: Regulation of Genetically-Modified Foods--The Key Concepts
13.2.1: The Precautionary Principle
13.2.2: Substantial Evidence
13.2.3: Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)
13.2.4: The Consumer’s Right to Know
13.3: The International Standards for Genetically Modified Foods--The Codex Alimentarius Commission
13.4: Efforts to Regulate GMOS
13.4.1: The European Union
13.4.2: The United States
13.5: Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity
13.5.1: Events Leading up to the Biosafety Protocol
13.5.2: Content and Analysis
13.5.3: Appraisal

Chapter Fourteen: International Trade and the Environment
14.0: Introduction
14.1: The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development--Agenda 21
14.2: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the World Trade Organization
14.2.1: Environmental Trade Measures
14.2.2: GATT Panel Decisions Before the Establishment of the WTO
14.2.3: WTO Cases
14.2.4: WTO’s Trade and Environment Committee
14.2.5: Appraisal
14.3: North American Free Trade Agreement
14.3.1: Overview
14.3.2: Review of the Pertinent NAFTA Provisions
14.3.3: Criticisms of NAFTA
14.3.4: North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation
14.4: Conclusion

Chapter Fifteen: The Environment and Human Rights
15.0: Introduction
15.1: The Challenge of Environmental Degradation
15.2: Historical Progression
15.3: Developments in the United States
15.4: The Right to Environmental Protection
15.4.1: The Nexus Between Environmental Protection and Internationally Recognized Human Rights
15.4.2: International and National Tribunals and the Right to a Healthy Environment
15.5: Operationalizing the Right to Environment
15.6: Appraisal and Recommendations
15.7: Rights of Indigenous Peoples
15.7.1: Introduction: A Case Study
15.7.2: What is “Indigenous”?
15.7.3: Early International Legal Protection
15.7.4: The Universal Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
15.8: Population, Human Rights, and the Environment
15.8.1: Introduction
15.8.2: The Nature and Scope of the Problem
15.8.3: The Population – Human Rights Nexus
15.8.4: The ICPD Program of Action and Subsequent Developments
15.8.5: Conclusion

Part IV: Conclusion
Chapter Sixteen: The Unfinished Agenda
16.0: The Challenge
16.1: Addressing the Challenge
16.2: A Final Word

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review this product!


Ved P. Nanda, BA, MA (1952) Punjab University, India; LLB (1955), LLM (1958) Delhi University, India; LLM (1962) Northwestern University, is the Evans University Professor, Thompson G. Marsh Professor, and Director of the International Legal Studies Program at the University of Denver Sturm College of Law; biography and publications at

George (Rock) Pring, BA hons. (1963) Harvard University; JD hons (1968) University of Michigan, is a Professor of Law at the University of Denver Sturm College of Law; biography and publications at

Bestsellers in this subject

The Law of Trees, Forests and Hedgerows

NHBS Price: £175.00 $218/€203 approx

RCRA Permitting Deskbook

NHBS Price: £78.00 $97/€90 approx

Ivory, Horn and Blood

NHBS Price: £19.99 $25/€23 approx

Habitats Directive

NHBS Price: £61.99 $77/€72 approx