Part 1 Case studies: Denmark's environmental aid to Eastern Europe - present and future, Lasse Ringius, Jesper Holm and Borge Klemmensen; co-operation for improvement of the environment in North-Eastern Europe - the Finnish concept, Jaakko Henttonen; Finland's environmental aid to Eastern Europe, Heidi Hiltunen; a review of Sweden's environmental aid to Eastern Europe - criticisms and possible solutions, Ragnar E. Lofstedt; biodiversity and nature conservation in Bulgaria - Swiss co-operation and support measures, Cheri Ragaz. Part 2 Recipient perspectives: environmental aid to Estonia, Andres Tarand; environmental consequences of the transformation and opening of the economy with the special attention to foreign ecological assistance - the case of Poland, Adam Budnikowski; environmental policy and the use of international aid in Hungary - fairness issues in resource allocation, Anna Vari; fossil-fuel conversion and improved energy efficiency made quick, affordable and reliable in the Baltic States, Hans Nilsson. Part 3 How can we use scientific theory to better understand Eastern European environmental policy?: fairness in dealing with transboundary environmental risks, Joanne Linnerooth-Bayer; factoring mentality in East-West technological co-operation, Gustaf Ostberg; environmental aid negotiations as a process of collective learning, Gunnar Sjostedt. Part 4 Lessons for theory and practice, Ragnar E. Lofstedt and Gunnar Sjostedt.