In the past, the science of ecology has frequently been excluded from the development agenda for various reasons. Increasingly however there has been a renewed interest in finding more ecologically sustainable means of development that have required a strong foundation in ecological knowledge (for example EcoAgriculture Partnerships, EcoHealth presented at ESA, and EcoNutrition proposed by Deckelbaum et al). Each of these examples has already taken the critical first step at integrating ecological knowledge with agriculture, health and nutrition, respectively.
However, this is only the first step; more attention needs to be placed not only on the role that two fields can play towards poverty alleviation, but on the role of a truly integrated, interdisciplinary approach towards development goals that is firmly grounded in ecological understanding. We feel that a critical look at what ecology can and cannot provide to the development agenda, in light of the Millennium Development goals, is timely and crucial. The introduction and the final section of the book will then integrate the lessons and principles outlined in each of the chapters. All chapter authors will be heavily encouraged to focus on how their sub-discipline in ecology impacts overall human well-being and environmental sustainability.
Table of Contents (Primary authors and Section Leaders in Bold Italics); Forward- Importance of ecology to poverty reduction (Jeffrey Sachs); Part 1: Introduction (Collective Editors); Ch 1.1. Purpose; Ch 1.2. Conceptual Framework; Ch 1.3. Organization of Book; Part 2: The Ecological Dimensions and Solutions to Global Development Challenges; Section 2.1. Hunger (Section Leader: Fabrice DeClerck, CATIE and Pedro Sanchez, Columbia University Earth Institute); Ch. 2.1.1. Ecological Services in Agricultural Landscapes; Ch. 2.1.2. Human Nutrition as an ecological service; Ch. 2.1.3. Achieving Conservation and Food Production in Agricultural Landscapes; Ch. 2.2.4. Ecological Principles for Sustainable Fisheries; Section 2.2. Water Resources (Section Leader: Roberto Lenton and Casey Brown, Int'l Res. Inst. for Climate and Society); Ch. 2.2.1. Ecological Challenges and Solutions for Insuring Sustainable Supplies of Water for Irrigation; Ch. 2.2.2. Ecological Dimensions of Securing Safe and Abundant Drinking Water; Ch. 2.2.3. Ecology of Watershed Management; Section 2.3. Human Health (Section Leader: Matt Bonds, Earth Institute at Columbia University); Ch. 2.3.1. Ecology of Infectious Diseases; Ch. 2.3.2. Landscape Ecology: the connections between Land-use Practices and Human Health; Ch. 2.3.3. Ecological Dimensions of HIV/AIDS; Section 2.4. Energy (Dan Kammen at the University of California at Berkeley (proposed) and Nina Sengupta, Auroville); Ch. 2.4.1. Ecological Considerations of Developing Sustainable Energy Sources; Ch. 2.4.2. Ecological Challenges and Benefits of Using Biofuels as Alternative Fuels; Ch.2.4.3. Ecological Sustainability of Fuelwood as a Dominant Energy Source in Rural Communities; Section 2.5. Disasters (Section Leader: J. Carter Ingram, Wildlife Conservation Society); Ch. 2.5.1. Ecological Resilience as a guiding principle for sustainable resource management; Ch. 2.5.2. Ecology of Drought; Ch. 2.5.3. Ecological Dimensions of Disaster Prevention; Section 2.6 Climate Change (Section Leader: Cristina Rumbaitis del Rio, Rockefeller Foundation); Ch. 2.6.1. Ecological Impacts of Climate Change; Ch. 2.6.2. The Role of Ecology in Mitigating the Societal Impacts of Climate Change; Ch. 2.6.3. The Role of Ecology in Adaptation to Climate Change; *Section 2.7. Education (Section Leader:Robin Sears, School for Field Studies)); *Section 2.8. Gender equality (Section Leader: Isabelle Guttierez, CATIE); Section 2.9. Synthesis of Direct Application of Ecological Theory (Collective Editors); *Currently, these are set to be one chapter, but depending on our work with the section leaders may be broken down into different chapters. Part 3: Mediating Forces for Leveraging Ecology towards Poverty Reduction in a Globalized World (Collective Editors); Section 3.1. Population (Section Leader: TBD, proposed Joel Cohen); Ch. 3.1.1. Population Growth; Ch. 3.1.2. Migration; Ch. 3.1.3. Urbanization; Section 3.2. Ecological Restoration (Section leader: TBD, proposed David Lamb); Ch. 3.2.1. Ecological restoration of degraded environments as a way of improving livelihoods and decreasing vulnerability; Ch. 3.2.2. Ecological restoration of coastal vegetation after disasters; Ch. 3.2.3. Ecological approaches towards environmental remediation; Ch. 3.2.4. Ecological engineering for wetland restoration; Section 3.3. Financing (Section Leader: Guido Schmidt Traub, Team Leader, Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Support Team, New York, United Nations Development Program); Ch. 3.3.1. Ecological Impacts, Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Trade; Ch. 3.3.2. The Role of Foreign Aid for Supporting Ecological Applications Towards Development Challenges; Ch. 3.3.3. Natural Resource Markets and Enterprises; Section 3.4. Economics: Payments for Ecosystem Services (Section Leader: Jose Gobbi, CATIE); Ch. 3.4.1. Payments for Carbon; Ch. 3.4.2. Payments for Water; Ch. 3.4.3. Payments for Biodiversity Conservation; Section 3.5. Governance & Social Movements (Section Leader: Marc Levy, Center for International Earth Science Information Network); Ch. 3.5.1. Land Tenure; Ch. 3.5.2. Conflict; Ch. 3.5.3. Post-Conflict Situations; Section 3.6. International Policy Mechanisms (Section Leader: Genevieve Patenaude, University of Edinburgh); Ch. 3.6.1. Kyoto Protocol, Clean Development Mechanism and the IPCC; Ch. 3.6.2. Convention on Biological Diversity; Ch. 3.6.3. Millennium Development Goals; Ch. 3.6.4. Protected Areas; Ch. 3.6.5. Developing Environmental Policy: Addressing Uncertainty and Significance in Ecological Research; Section 3.7. Synthesis of Mediating Forces (Collective Authors); Part 4. Conclusions (Collective Authors): 4.1. Doing Interdisciplinary Science: Methods, Challenges and Benefits; 4.2. The Future and Evolving Role of Ecology in Society
The three editors of this volume, Jane Carter Ingram, Fabrice DeClerck, and Cristina Rumbatis del Rio, have collaborated on multiple projects addressing the role of ecology in poverty reduction and began working together at the Earth Institute of Columbia University. Their educational and professional backgrounds in ecology, geography, and sustainable development have served as the inspiration for this book and their professional pursuits. The editors hope that the issues presented and explored in this volume will serve to encourage ecological scientists and practitioners in international development fields to collaborate together to identify creative, sustainable and viable solutions to challenges preventing poverty alleviation around the world. J. Carter Ingram is the lead of the Ecosystem Services and Payments for Ecosystem Services group at the Wildlife Conservation Society in New York, NY. Cristina Rumbaitis del Rio is an Associate Director at the Rockefeller Foundation in New York, NY (USA). Fabrice DeClerck is a professor of community and landscape ecology at CATIE in Costa Rica.