This book intends to provide an overview of current research on halophilic microorganisms, highlighting the diversity of life forms adapted to tolerate high salt concentrations and low water activities. Most of the 35 chapters are based on lectures presented during the international symposium "Halophiles 2004", held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in September 2004. Descriptions of the diverse high-salt environments in which halophiles are found are followed by sections devoted to the properties of halophilic Archaea, of halophilic and halotolerant Bacteria, and of different groups of salt-loving Eukarya, including fungi, algae and protozoa. Extensive information is provided about fungi adapted to life at high salt concentrations, a group that was poorly known until very recently. This volume is intended for researchers and students interested in a wide range of disciplines in the life sciences: from microbial ecology and adaptation of microorganisms to life in extreme environments to genomics, biotechnology, and astrobiology.
Foreword; J. SeckbachIntroduction; N. Gunde-Cimerman, A. Oren, A. Plemenita?SECTION I. THE ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR DIVERSITYMicrobial diversity of Great Salt Lake; B.K. Baxter, C.D. Litchfield, K. Sowers, J.D. Griffith, P.A. DasSarma; S. DasSarmaMicrobial communitites in the Dead Sea ? past, present and future; A. Oren, I. Gavrieli, J. Gavrieli, M. Kohen, J. Lati, M. AharoniMicroscopic examination of microbial communitires along a salinity gradient in saltern evaporation poonds: a ?halophilic safari?; A. OrenThe microbial diversity of a solar saltern on San Francisco Bay; C.D. Litchfield, M. Sikaroodi, P.M. GillivetDiversity of microbial communities: the case of solar salterns; C. Pedros-AlioIsolation of viable haloarchaea from ancient salt deposits and application of fluorescent stains for in situ detection of halophiles in hypersaline environmental samples and model fluid inclusions; S. Leuko, A. Legat, S. Fendrihan, H. Wieland, C. Radax, C. Gruber, M. Pfaffenhuemer, G. Weidler, H. Stan-LotterHydrocarbon degredation under hypersaline conditions. Some facts, some experiments and many open questions; H. PatzeltThe relevance of halophiles and other extremophiles to Martian and extraterrestrial environments; J. SeckbachHalophiles: a terrestrial analog for life in brines on Mars ? Halophiles on Mars; R.L. MancinelliSECTION II. ARCHAEAComparative genomic survey of information transfer systems in two diverse extremely halophilic Archaea, Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 and Haloarcula marismortui; B.R. Berquist, J. Soneja, S. DasSarmaWalsby's square archaeon; it's hip to be square but even more hip to be culturable; H. BolhuisGene regulation and the initiation of translation in halophilic Archaea; F. Pfeifer, P. Zimmermann, S. Scheuch, S. Sartorius-NeefProtein translation, targeting and translocation in Haloferax volcanii; J. Eichler, G. Ring, V. Irihimovitch, T. Lichi, I. Tozik, Z. KonradEnzymes of halophilic Archaea. Recent findings on ureases and nucleoside diphosphate kinases; T. Mizuki, R. Usami, M. Kamo, M. Tanokura, M. KamekuraOsmoadaptation in methanogenci Archaea: recent insights from a genomic perspective; K. Pfluger, H. Wieland, V. MullerSECTION III. BACTERIASalinibacter ruber: genomics and biogeography; J. Anton, A. Pena, M. Valens, F. Santos, F * O. Glockner, M. Bauer, J. Dopazo, J. Herrero, R. Rossello-Mora, R. AmannWhat we can deduce about metabolism in the moderate halophile Chromohalobacter salexigens from its genomic sequence; L.N. Csonka, K. O'Connor, F. Larimer, P. Richardson, A. Lapidus, A.D. Ewing, B.W. Goodner, A. OrenK+ transport and its role for osmoregulation in a halophilic memberof the Bacteria domain: characterization of the K+ uptake systems from Halomonas elongate; H * J. KunteThe chloride regulon of Halobacillus halophilus: a novel regulatory network for salt perception and signal transduction in bacteria; V. Muller, S.H. SaumBiosynthesis of the compatible solute mannosylglycerate from hyperthermophiles to mesophiles. Genes, enzymes and evolutionary perspectives; M.S. da Costa, N. EmpadinhasGenes and enzymes of ectoine biosynthesis in the haloalkaliphilic obligate methanotroph "Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z"; A.S. Reshetnikov, V.N. Khmelenina, I.I. Mustakhimov, Y.V. Ryzhmanova, Y.A. TrotsenkoHalophilic Archaea and Bacteria as a source of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes; A. Ventosa, C. Sanchez-Porro, S. Martin, E. MelladoBiopolyester production: halophilic microorganisms as an attractive source; J. Quillaguaman, B. Mattiasson, R. Hatti-KaulSECTION IV. FUNGIRelation of halotolerance to human pathogenicity in the fungal tree of life: an overview of ecology and evolution under stress; G. Sybren de Hoog, P. Zalar, B. Gerrits van den Ende, N. Gunde-CimermanHalotolerant and halophilic fungi from coastal environments in the Arctics; N. Gunde-Cimerman, L. Butinar, S. Sonjak, M. Turk, V. Ur?ic, , P. Zalar, A. Plemenita?Halotolerant and halophilic fungi and their extrolite production; J.C. FrisvadIntroducing Debaryomyces hansenii, a salt-loving yeast; J. RamosCellular responses in the halophilic black yeast Hortaea werneckii to high environmental salinity; A. Plemenita?, N. Gunde-CimermanHalotolerance and lichen symbioses; M. Grube, J. BlahaSECTION V. ALGAEA century of Dunaliella research: 1905-2005; A. OrenMolecular determinants of protein halotolerance: structural and functional studies of the extremely salt tolerant carbonic anhydrases from Dunaliella salina; L. Premkumar, M. Volkovitsky, I. Gokhman, J.L. Sussman, A. ZamirSECTION VI. PROTOZOAHetrotrophic protozoa from hypersaline environments; G. Hauer, A. RogersonHeterotrophic flagellates in hypersaline waters; B.C. ChoSECTION VII. VIRUSESHaloviruses and their hosts; M.L. Dyall-Smith, D.G. Burns, H.M. Camakaris, P.H. Janssen, B.E. Russ, K. PorterSubject IndexOrganism IndexAuthor Index