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In this book, experts in atmospheric sciences, human health, economics, social and political sciences contribute to an integrated assessment of the complex elements needed to structure air quality policy in the 21st century. The analysis is developed through a case study of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area - one of the world's largest megacities in which air pollution grew unchecked for decades. The international research team is led by Luisa T. and Mario J. Molina, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. Improvements in Mexico City's air quality in the last decade testifies to the power of determined and enlightened policy making, and throws into relief the tough problems that remain to be solved. The volume's first six chapters, including the contributions of over 50 distinguished scholars from Mexico and the US, outline the fundamental areas of knowledge policy makers must accommodate. The message is that only good science and well-chosen technologies can direct the way to corrective regulatory measures; but without strong commitment from government, no amount of science or technology can help.
Prologue. Preface. Chapter One: Air Quality Impacts: A Local and Global Concern. 1. Introduction. 2. Urban Air Pollution: Historical Record. 3. Sources and Transport of Air Pollution. 4. Impacts of Air Pollution. 5. Conclusion. Chapter Two: Cleaning the Air: A Comparative Overview. 1. Introduction. 2. Cleaning the Air: The Los Angeles Experience. 3. Cleaning the Air: The Experience of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. 4. Discussion and Conclusions. Chapter Three: Forces Driving Pollutant Emissions in the MCMA. 1. Introduction. 2. Population Growth. 3. Urban Growth. 4. Economic Growth. 5. Production and Consumption of Energy. 6. Erosion and Biogenic Emissions Sources. 7. Conclusion. Chapter Four: Health Benefits of Air Pollution Control. 1. Introduction. 2. Evidence of Air Pollution Exposures and Health Effects. 3. 'Back of the Envelope Risk Assessment. 4. Approaches to Valuing Health Effects. 5. Discussion and Conclusions. Chapter Five: Air Pollution Science in the MCMA: Understanding Source-Receptor Relationships Through Emissions Inventories, Measurements and Modeling. 1. Introduction. 2. Basic Scientific Understanding and Important Questions for Policy. 3. Measurements of Meteorology and Air Quality. 4. Emissions Inventories. 5. Air Pollution Modeling Applications. 6. Scientific Understanding, Analysis of Uncertainties, Research Methods, and Recommendations. 7. Summary of Key Recommendations. Chapter Six: The MCMA Transportation System: Mobility and air Pollution. 1. Introduction. 2. Urban Transformation. 3. Transportation Demand. 4. Transportation Supply. 5. Transport-Related Emissions. 6. Regional Architecture Framework. 7. Transportation Strategic Planning by Various Government Agencies. 8. Key Problems and Future Policy Areas. Chapter Seven: Conclusions: Key Findings and Recommendations. 1. Introduction. 2. Integrated Framework for Air Quality Management Plans. 3. Health Benefits of Pollution Control. 4. Air Pollution Science: Understanding Source-Receptor Relationships. 5. Options to Reduce Mobile Source Emissions and Improve Mobility. 6. Options to Reduce Non-Transport Emissions Sources. 7. Institutional Framework for Air Quality Management. 8. Education and Capacity Building. 9. Funding Mechanisms for Air Quality Programs. 10. Summary. Photographs. Appendix A: Mexico Metropolitan Index for Air Quality (Imeca) and the Environmental Contingency Program. Appendix B: 'No Driving Day' (Hoy No circula). Appendix C: List of Acronyms. Appendix D: Glossary. References. About the Authors. Index.