The scope of this book is to show that protected areas may be the regions where early signs of the impact of global change can be observed. These signs are not limited to physical parameters like temperature, precipitation, etc. but could include changes in the biosphere and in social behavior. The book is a collection of papers presented at the meeting `Global Change and Protected Areas' held in L'Aquila, Italy, in September 1998. It is divided into four sections dealing with the physical evidence for climatic and environmental changes, the impact on the biosphere and hydrology and the socio-economic implications. The last section is a case study on the Abruzzo Region which has the peculiarity among the Italian regions of having dedicated a third of its territory to natural parks. Most of the contributions have been prepared for this book and each section is opened by a general review that may also be very useful as a teaching tool. The book will be useful for both the researcher and the student. This rather interdisciplinary subject is totally new, with very few books in print.
Contributors. Acknowledgements. Section 1: Climatic and Environmental Changes. Global change and mountain regions -- an IGBP initiative for collaborative research; A. Becker, H. Bugmann. Climate variations in Italy in the last 130 years; M. Brunetti, et al. Dendroclimatic information on silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in the northern Appennines; M. Brunetti, et al. Trends in high frequency precipitation variability in some northern Italy secular stations; M. Brunetti, et al. Climate change experiments on a glacier foreland in the Central Alps; B. Erschbamer. High mountain summits as sensitive indicators of climate change effects on vegetation patterns: the `Multi Summit-Approach' of GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments); H. Pauli, et al. Temperature and precipitation trends in Italy during the last century; E. Piervitali, M. Colacino. Climate and other sources of change in the St. Elias region; D.S. Slocombe. Permafrost and climate in Europe: climate change, mountain permafrost degradation and geotechnical hazard; C. Harris, D. Vonder Muhll. Thermal variations of mountain permafrost: an example of measurements since 1987 in the Swiss Alps; D. Vonder Muhll. Climate change and air quality assessment in Canadian National Parks; D. Welch. Regional clean air partnerships and the ETEAM; E.R. Hauge. 4 Additional Chapters. Section 2: Impact on the Biosphere and Hydrology. The Effects of global warming on mountain regions: a summary of the 1995 report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change; M. Beniston. Global change in respect to tendency to acidification of subarctic mountain lakes; V. Dauvalter, et al. Influence of climate, species immigration, fire, and men on forest dynamics in northern Italy, from 6000 cal. BP to today; T. Mathis, et al. Koenigia Islandica (Iceland Purslane) -- A case study of a potential indicator of climate change in the UK; B. Meatyard. Semi-objective sampling strategies as one basis for a vegetation survey; K. Reiter, et al. Simulating the impact of climate change on drought in Swiss forest stands; B. Zierl. Forecasted stability of Mediterranean evergreen species considering global change; L. Gratani, A. Bombelli. Birds as bio-indicators of long-transported lead in the alpine environment; M. Janiga. Annual estimations of ecophysiological parameters and biogenic volatile compounds (BVOCs) emissions in Citrus Sinensis (L.) Osbeck; F. Manes, et al. A multiscale study to analyse the response of vegetation to climatic conditions; F. Manes, et al. Phytotoxic ozone effect on selected plant species in a standardized experimental design; F. Manes, et al. Plant invasions in central european middle-mountains: a result of global change?; L. Soukupova. 5 Additional Chapters. Section 3: Socio-Economic Implications. Economic evaluation of Italian parks and natural areas; S. Notaro, G. Signorello. Environmental and human impact on coastal and marine protected areas in India; R. Krishnamoorthy, et al. Past climate change and the generation and persistence of species richness in a biodiversity hotspot, the Cape Flora of South Africa; G. Midgley, R. Roberts. The world network of biosphere reserves: a flexible structure for understanding and responding to global change; M. Price. The role of a global protected areas system in conserving biodiversity in the face of climate change; L. Hannah. Section 4: The Abruzzi Parks: A Case Study. The strong reduction phase of the Calderone glacier during the last two centuries: reconstruction of the variation and of the possible scenarios with GIS technologies; L. D'Alessandro, et al. Digital geomorphologic cartography of the top area of the Gran Sasso d'Italia mountain group (Central Appenine, Italy); L. D'Alessandro, et al. The late pleistocene and holocene temporary lakes in the Abruzzo parks and the Central Appennines; C. Giraudi. The travertine deposits of the upper Pescara valley (Central Abruzzi, Italy): a clue for the reconstruction of the late Quaternary Palaeoenvironmental evolution of the area; M. Lombardo, et al. The protected areas system for the conservation and for an eco-compatible development of the territory: The Maiella National Park; G. Cavuta. Environmental protection and social protection: The Sirente-Velino Regional Park; M. Fuschi. Protected areas management: an example of application in the Gran Sasso Park; L. Gratani, et al. The main invasive alien plants in the protected areas in central Italy (Abruzzo); L. Pace, F. Tammaro. The Historical and iconographic research in the reconstruction of the variation of the Calderone glacier: state of the art and perspective; M. Pecci. Numerical experiments to study the possible meteorological changes induced by the presence of a lake; B. Tomassetti, et al.