Burrowing asps, mole vipers, stiletto snakes – snakes of the genus Atractaspis are known by many names because of their unusual features and fascinating adaptations. Endowed with fangs that can be protruded through closed jaws, these snakes present a tantalizing example of how burrowing species can evolve to most effectively exploit their subterranean niche. The African and Middle Eastern Burrowing Asps (Atractaspis spp.) and Their Allies provides a detailed and richly illustrated glimpse into the biology of these secretive serpents, their venom delivery apparatus, toxinology and their underestimated medical importance in some Middle Eastern and African regions. The medical effects and management of envenoming by these snakes is critically evaluated, and recommendations are provided for treatment of the envenomed patient. Some of the allies of the burrowing asps are also briefly considered, especially the enigmatic Natal black snake and South African harlequin snakes. This book is relevant to anyone interested in these alluring serpents whether they be professional biologists, amateur herpetologists, enthusiastic naturalists, or medical staff practising in areas where these snakes may occur. It should provide many hours of enjoyable reading and long term reference about these mysterious animals.