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This book is the outcome of an international workshop promoted and organised by the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and by the Science for Peace and Security Programme of NATO. Its focus is the emerging issue of environment and security aspects in terms of water scarcity, land degradation and desertification in the Mediterranean Region.
This region has been identified as one of the most vulnerable areas with respect to environmental security threats. Conversely, due to its climatic and topographic features, the cross-boundary dimension of the Mediterranean Basin, and its mix of cultural, political and economic diversity, the region also represents an area that poses the potential for social and political instability. The Euro-Mediterranean Region is affected by frequent severe environmental events, such as forest fires, floods and landslides, droughts, torrential rains, heat waves and water scarcity. The Southern and Eastern shores of the Mediterranean undergo even more harsh environmental impacts affecting the availability of water resources and the soil quality and productivity. These environmental conditions contribute to the development of negative processes, like social marginalization, conflicts and migrations.
The book includes scientific analysis and evaluation on these topics, together with the views of policy makers. The outputs of the discussions and recommendations of four Working Groups are provided as summaries of the dialogue and the exchange of ideas between experts and representatives from the affected countries and the international organizations competent in the matter.
Introduction; F. Pedrazzini and R. Daussa.- Background paper; R. Daussa.
1. Key Notes Presentations. Grounding Security, Securing the Ground; G. de Kalbermatten.- Status of Desertification in the Mediterranean Region; U.N. Safriel.-Desertification and Water Scarcity as a Security Challenge in the Mediterranean; J.L. Rubio.- Facing Water Crises and Shortages in the Mediterranean; H-L.Thibault.- Reviewing Land Use and Security Linkages in the Mediterranean Region; W. Blum.
2. Reports of the Workings Groups.
WG I -- Security Implications of Unsustainable Water Management and Land Use; Facilitators: U. Safriel and W. E.H. Blum.- Rapporteur: V. Andreu.
WG II -- Loss of Livelihoods and increased Migration; Facilitators: T. Afifi, D. Mouat and J.L. Rubio.- Rapporteur: Ph. Reuchlin.
WG III -- Linkages between Combating Land Degradation, Desertification and Conflict Prevention; Facilitators: B. Cisse and Dr. A. Gilil, Rapporteur: G. Leonte.
WG IV -- Managing Water Scarcity; Facilitators: M. Badraoui and J. Ferrer, Rapporteur: Ph. Reuchlin.- Introductory remarks to the Working Group IV: Managing Water Scarcity; M. Badraoui.- Egyptian Water and Soil: A Cause for Migration and Security Threats? -- T. Afifi, United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security, UNU-EHS, Bonn. Conclusions; J.L Rubio, U. Safriel.