The study of signal transduction mechanisms has become one of the most important branches of biomedical science, indispensable to understanding the normal actions of hormones, neurotransmitters and other extracellular signalling molecules as well as very many pathophysiological processes including inflammation and cancer. In this volume, the various techniques for measuring Ca2+ in the cytosol, in the various organelles and in the immediate surroundings of individual cells are described in practical details by experts, on the basis of their personal experience. Considering that the protein calmodulin is the main target for Ca2+ action in most cell types, a chapter on tracking calmodulin inside cells, using fluorescence technology, has also been included.
Principles of fluorescence measurements - dyes and hardware required; Simple principles of imaging - image files, image processing and image analysis; Aequorin measurements of cytosolic Ca2+; Electrophysiological measurements using Ca2+-sensitive microelectrodes; Measuring Ca2+ in the nucleoplasm of intact cells; Measuring Ca2+ in isolated nuclei; Ca2+ measurement with luminescent probes in the endoplasmic reticulum; Ca2+ measurement with fluorescent probes in the endoplasmic reticulum; Ca2+ measurements in mitochondria; Ca2+ measurements in secretory granules; Ca2+ measurement in Endosomes in intact cells; Measuring Ca2+ extrusion from single cells; Tracking calmodulin inside cells; Subject index.
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