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About this book
About this book
An ever-increasing concern over environmental degradation, together with recent technological advances, has spawned an explosion of chemical data for a wide variety of matter found on earth and in the solar system. Yuan-Hui Li's book offers professionals and students alike an indispensable up-to-date guide to geochemistry, bringing together new information on topics ranging from nucleosynthesis to crystal chemistry, from the systematics of chemical variation in the earth's core to the composition of complex organics. The objective is to illustrate the physicochemical principles and various natural processes that can explain observed compositional changes in natural substances. A general understanding of these principles and processes (including those pertaining to cosmology, geology, and biology) is essential, maintains the author, for deciphering and predicting transport pathways and final sinks of anthropogenic pollutants in our environment. The book focuses on compositional data and related references for such substances as solar photosphere, meteorites, igneous rocks, soils, sedimentary rocks, surficial waters, marine and terrestrial organisms (including humans), and aerosols. It emphasizes the use of original raw data as much as possible, and applies the statistical technique of factor analysis to elucidate any underlying interrelationships among chemical elements and given sample sets. Whenever applicable, simple chemical thermodynamic models are introduced to explain the observed partitioning of elements among different phases.
Preface xi Chapter 1 Atoms, Nuclei, and Energy 3 Introduction 3 I-1. Periodic Table of the Elements and Electron Configurations of Atoms 3 I-2. Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Binding Energies 13 I-3. Cohesive Energies among the Atoms of Pure Metals and Nonmetals 19 I-4. Ionization Energies and Electron Affinities of Gaseous Atoms and Ions 23 I-5. Ionic Radii and Ionic Potentials 28 I-6. Electric Polarizability 35 I-7. Electronegativity 39 I-8. Crystal Lattice Energies 44 I-9. Hydrolysis of Canons and Dissociation of Oxyacids 48 I-10. Solubility Products and Affinity of Aqueous Cations to Oxides 52 I-11. Concluding Remarks 53 Chapter 2: The Solar Nebula and Nucleosynthesis 55 Introduction 55 II-1. Elemental and Isotopic Compositions of the Solar Nebula 55 II-2. Cosmological Nucleosynthesis 63 II-3. Stellar Nucleosynthesis 68 II-4. Concluding Remarks 82 Chapter 3: Structure and Chemistry of the Solar System 83 Introduction 83 III-1. Motion of Interplanetary Objects 83 III-2. Asteroids and Comets 86 III-3. Planets, Their Satellites, and Their Rings 99 III-4. Condensation of Solid Dusts from the Solar Nebular Gas 107 Chapter 4: Distribution of Elements in Meteorites 119 Introduction 119 IV-1. Classification of Meteorites 119 IV-2. Oxygen Isotopes and Possible Genetic Relationships among Subclasses of Meteorites 129 IV-3. Bulk Compositions of Chondrites and Factor Analysis 133 IV-4. Cosmochemical Classification of Elements 144 IV-5. Matrices and Chondrules of Chondrites 154 IV-6. Ca-Al-Rich Inclusions in Chondrites 167 IV-7. Igneous Differentiation in Achondrites and Iron Meteorites 179 IV-8. Concluding Remarks 188 Chapter 5: Igneous Rocks and the Composition of the Earth 189 Introduction 189 V-1. Classification Scheme for Igneous Rocks 189 V-2. Earth's Structure and Mineral Composition 193 V-3. Partial Melting and Fractional Crystallization Models of Igneous Rocks 197 V-4. Deduction of the Primitive Upper Mantle Composition 209 V-5. Partition of the Elements between Mantle and Core 215 V-6. Continental and Oceanic Crusts 221 V-7. Relationship between the Compositions of Mantle and Crust 231 V-8. Isotopic Heterogeneity of the Mantle 234 V-9. Case Studies of Elemental Association in Igneous Rocks 242 V-10. Concluding Remarks 249 Chapter 6: Weathering and Sedimentary Rocks 253 Introduction 253 VI-1. Weathering of Igneous Rocks 254 VI-2. Dissolved Products of Chemical Weathering 260 VI-3. Major Classes of Sedimentary Rocks 264 VI-4. Relative Abundances of Major Sedimentary Rock Types and Mass Balance 268 VI-5. Shales and Related Materials 273 VI-6. Trace Elements in Sandstone and Limestone 283 VI-7. Iron Formations 288 VI-8. Partition of Elements between River-Suspended Particles and River Water, and the Adsorption Model 296 VI-9. Concluding Remarks 302 Chapter 7: Distribution of Elements in the Ocean 303 Introduction 303 VII-I. Concentrations of Elements in the Oceans 3(13 VII-2. Chemical Speciation of Elements in the Ocean 312 VII-3. Marine Algae and Plankton 317 VII-4. Zooplankton Fecal Pellets and Sediment Trap Material 325 VII-5. Marine Sediments 329 VII-6. Marine Manganese Nodules and Seamount Manganese Crusts 341 VII-7. Marine Phosphorite 347 VII-8. Hydrothermal Vents of the Mid-Ocean Ridges 348 VII-9. Concluding Remarks 352 Chapter 8: Biosphere and Homo Sapiens 355 Introduction 355 VIII-1. Are all Creatures Created Equal? 355 VIII-2. Human Body 366 VIII-3. Coals, Crude Oils, and Organic-Rich Shales 376 VIII-4. Relative Volatility of Elements and Compositions of Aerosol Particles 387 VIII-5. Effects of Fossil Fuel Burning on the Chemistry of Rain and River Waters: A Case Study 405 VIII-6. Concluding Remarks 411 Appendix: Rayleigh Condensation and Evaporation Models 413 Appendix Table A-1: Ionization Energies 415 Appendix Table A-2: Abundance of the Nuclides 418 Appendix Table A-3: Minerals in Meteorites 424 Appendix Table A-4: Minerals in Igneous Rocks 426 References 429 Index 465
440 pages, 64 line illustrations84 tables
Li includes a more diverse range of topics than does any remotely comparable work, and stresses the importance of cosmological, geological, and biological processes in understanding Earth's environment ... A timely addition to the geochemical literature and the best available compilation of data in recent decades. Choice