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The Indo-Pacific gobiid fish genus Exyrias comprises 3 species: E. belissimus (Smith), E. ferrarisi new species, and E. puntang (Bleeker). A key is provided to the species of Exyrias, which can be differentiated by number of predorsal scales and color pattern: E. puntang possesses 10 or more predorsal scales; E. belissimus has 8 or 9 predorsal scales and dusky bars; and E. ferrarisi has 8 or 9 predorsal scales and dusky stripes. The Indo-Pacific gobiid fish genus Macrodontogobius is monotypic, represented by M. wilburi Herre. Exyrias is easily separable from Macrodontogobius by having 8 or more predorsal scales vs. 7 or fewer, body depth greater than 23% SL vs. 22% or less, head depth greater than 21% SL vs. 18% or less, and least depth of caudal peduncle greater than 14% SL vs. 13% or less. Figures and descriptions of each species are given.
Exyrias and Macrodontogabius are hypothesized to be very closely related, however, no synapomorphies are given. The difficulty of applying phylogenetic techniques to gobioid fishes is discussed.