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The following 6 species of parrotfishes of the subfamily Sparisomatinae are found in the Indo-West Pacific region (listed in brackets are junior synonyms not previously documented): Calotomus carolinus (Valenciennes) [Callyodon sandwicensis Valenciennes, Cryptotomus albimarginatus Fourmanoir and Guézé], East Africa to Gulf of California, including the Hawaiian Islands (this species is incorrectly listed as C. spinidens in many publications); C. japonicus (Valenciennes) [C. cyclurus Jenkins], Japan; C. spinidens (Quoy and Gaimard) [Callyodon moluccensis Bleeker], East Africa to western Pacific (incorrectly listed as C. japonicus in some publications); C. viridescens (Rüppell), Red Sea; C. zonarchus (Gilbert), Hawaiian Islands; Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy and Gaimard), Red Sea to Easter Island, absent from the Hawaiian Islands. Scaridea Jenkins is placed in the synonymy of Calotomus Gilbert. Calotomus and Leptoscarus are diagnosed.