A world-monograph of the genus Cheilymenia Boud. is presented. The monograph basically maintains the latest infrageneric classification of the genus as given in Moravec (1990b), supplemented and modified in Moravec (1993, 2003a, 2003c) and here, to reflect new results. Taxonomic status of some species is re-evaluated and several infraspecific taxa are recognised. These interpretations have been based on examination of type specimens and other relevant material deposited in various institutional and private herbaria. 38 species (and 12 infraspecific taxa, 6 of them newly described here) of the genus Cheilymenia are distinguished.
The genus is divided into 8 sections (subdivided into 11 series) established on the basis of a complex of morphological characters, such as apothecial structure, type of hairs and ascospore omamentation. The sections are: sect. Paracheilymeniae with series Paracheilymeniae, Raripilosae and Glabrae; sect. Coprobia; sect. Striatisporae with series Striatisporae, Tenuistriatae and Albosetosae; sect. Villosae; sect. Obtusipilosae; sect. Micropilosae; sect. Cheilymenia with series Cheilymenia, Insignes and Pallidae; sect. Pseudoscutelliniae with series Pseudoscutelliniae and Coprinariae.
The lectotypification of the name of the type species Peziza stercorea Pers.: Fr. remains as proposed in Moravec (1993, corrected in 1998). Typification of the other two species names is accomplished: lectotype (iconotype) of Peziza granulata Bull. supported by an epitype (PC), and a neotype (PRM) of Peziza theleboloides Alb. et Schwein. are designated. A lectotype of Humaria alpina Fuckel, treated here as Cheilymenia stercorea f. alpina, is designated. Typification of some synonyms is also proposed. The name Cheilymenia fimicola (De Not. et Bagl.) Dennis, based on Arrhenia fimicola is considered a nomen dubium, and this species (which has been differently interpreted by some authors) is partly substituted by Cheilymenia dennisii sp. nov. described here. Excluded and imperfectly known taxa are listed.
Besides the chapters dealing with material and methods and explanation of morphology, the introductory part also comprises chapters on the history of taxonomy and nomenclature of Cheilymenia, ecology of species and their distribution, and remarks on relationships with other genera of Pyronemataceae. A dichotomous key to the sections and keys to species and infraspecific taxa of each section are compiled. Each of the recognised taxa is described in detail and illustrated with line drawings or microphotographs, and SEM photornicrographs. Colour photographs of apothecia of some taxa complete the monograph.