This book summarizes the results of a long-term investigation of amphibian distribution, ecology and morphology in the Republic of Belarus. For all amphibian species, Triturus vulgaris, T. cristatus, Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, B. viridis, B. calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana temporaria, R. arvalis, R. ridibunda, R. lessonae and Rana esculenta, geographical and habitat distribution, assemblage structure, feeding, activity, reproduction and development are described. Detailed analysis of morphological variation and the differentiation of dominant populations by landscape regions are given. Regional problems of anthropogenic pressure and methodology of species conservation are discussed. The book may be used by both specialists and amateurs.
Introduction, Chapter 1. Materials and Methods, Chapter 2. Physical and Geographical Characterization of Belarus, Chapter 3. Systematic Overview, Smooth Newt, Triturus vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758), Great Crested Newt, Triturus cristatus (Laurenti, 1768), Fire-Bellied Toad, Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1761), Common Spadefood, Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768), Common Toad, Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758), Green Toad, Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768, Natterjack Toad, Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768, Common Tree Frog, Hyla arborea (Linnaeus, 1758), Common Frog, Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, Moor Frog, Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842, Marsh Frog, Rana ridibunda Pallas, 1771, Pool Frog, Rana lessonae Camerano, 1882, Edible Frog, Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758, Chapter 4. Structure of Assemblages and Synecology, 4.1. Dynamics of Faunistic Complexes, 4.2. Structural Organization of Assemblages, 4.3. Habitat Distribution and Population Number, 4.4. Trophic Structure, Chapter 5. Phenotypic Variability of Populations, 5.1. Intraspecific Variability of Morphometric Characters of the Moor and the Common Frogs, 5.2. Interpopulation Variability of Morphometric Characters of the Moor and the Common Frogs, 5.3. Analysis of Variability of Phenetic Structures of Moor and Common Frog Populations, Chapter 6. Reproduction and Development, 6.1. Phenology of Reproduction, 6.2. Spawning, 6.3. Embryonic and Larval Development, Chapter 7. Anthropogenic Influences and Conservation, 7.1. Main Anthropogenic Factors, 7.2. Current State and Dynamics of Populations, 7.3. Conservation Measures, Conclusions, List of Sites and Structure of Amphibian Associations, References, Color Plates,