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About this book
About this book
High-pressure mineral physics is a field that is strongly driven by the development of new technology. Fifty years ago, when experimentally achievable pressures were limited to just 25 GPa, little was know about the mineralogy of the Earth's lower mantle. Silicate perovskite, the likely dominant mineral of the deep Earth, was identified only when the high-pressure techniques broke the pressure barrier of 25 GPa in 1970s. However, as the maximum achievable pressure reached beyond one Megabar (100 GPa) and even to the pressure of Earths core on minute samples, new discoveries increasingly were fostered by the development of new analytical techniques and improvements in sensitivity and precision of existing techniques. The book consists of six sections which group the papers according to their main topics: Elastic and Anelastic Properties; Rheology; Melt and Glass Properties; Structural and Magnetic Properties; Diffraction and Spectroscopy; Pressure Calibration and Generation. As many papers cover multiple topics, readers may find papers of interest in different sections. All papers are prepared with emphasis on technical details suitable for a technical reference. Many on-line software resources are also listed in as detailed a manner as possible. However, the URL of the software sites may be subject to change without notice. It talks about the state of the art in a very important branch of geophysics, namely the experimental determination of material behavior at the extreme conditions of planetary interiors. It places emphasis on technical details suitable for a technical reference. It includes many on-line software resources.
Elastic and Anelastic Properties. Direct measurements of the elastic properties of iron and cobalt to 120 GPa - implications for the composition of Earth's core (J.C. Crowhurst, A.F. Goncharov, J.M. Zaug). A gigahertz ultrasonic interferometer for the diamond anvil cell and high-pressure elasticity of some iron-oxide minerals (S.D. Jacobsen et al.). Simultaneous equation of state, pressure calibration and sound velocity measurements to lower mantle pressures sing multi-anvil apparatus (B. Li et al.). Simultaneous determination of elastic and structural properties under simulated mantle conditions using multi-anvil device MAX80 (H.J. Mueller, C. Lathe, F.R. Schilling). Laboratory measurement of seismic wave dispersion and attenuation at high pressure and temperature (I. Jackson). Rheology. High-temperature plasticity measurements using synchrotron X-rays (D.J. Weidner et al.). Stress and strain measurements of polycrystalline materials under controlled deformation at high pressure using monochromatic synchrotron radiation (T. Uchida et al.). Development of a rotational drickamer apparatus for large-strain deformation experiments at deep earth conditions (Y. Xu, Y. Nishihara, S. Karato). Melt and Glass Properties. Density measurements of molten materials at high pressure using synchrotron X-ray radiography: Melting volume of FeS (J. Chen et al.). Viscosity and density measurements of melts and glasses at high pressure and temperature by using the multianvil apparatus and synchrotron X-ray radiation (E. Ohtani et al.). The effect of composition, compression, and decompression on the structure of high-pressure aluminosilicate glasses: An investigation utilizing 17O and 27Al NMR (J.R. Allwardt et al.). The application of 17O and 27Al solid-state (3QMAS) NMR to structures of non-crystalline silicates at high-pressure (S.K. Lee et al.). Structural and Magnetic Properties. Decompression of majoritic garnet: an experimental investigation of mantle (L.F. Dobrzhinetskaya et al.). Chemistry at extreme conditions: Approaching the earth's major interface (L. Dubrovinsky et al.). Pressure dependence on the magnetic properties of titanomagnetite using the reversible susceptibility method (S.A. Gilder, M. LeGoff). Diffraction and Spectroscopy. High-pressure angle-dispersive powder diffraction using an energy-dispersive setup and white synchrotron radiation (Y. Wang et al.). Methods and application of the Paris-Edinburgh press to S-ray diffraction structure solution with large-volume samples at high pressures and temperatures (W.A. Crichton, M. Mezouar). High-pressure structure determination and refinement by X-ray diffraction (R.J. Angel). Nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and synchrotron Mossbauer spectroscopy with laser-heated diamond anvil cells (J.-Fu Lin et al.). In situ raman spectroscopy with laser-heated diamond anvil cells (M. Santoro et al.). Pressure Calibration and Generation. Calibration based on a primary pressure scale in a multi-anvil device (H.J. Mueller et al.). High-pressure generation in the Kawai-type apparatus equipped with sintered diamond anvils: Application to the wurtzite-rocksalt transformation in GaN (E. Ito et al.). Development of high P-T neutron diffraction at LANSCE - Toroidal Anvil Press, TAP-98, in the HiPPO diffractometer (Y. Zhao et al.). A new optical capillary cell for spectroscopic studies of geologic fluids at pressures up to 100 MPa (I-M. Chou, R.C. Burruss, W. Lu). Internal and external electrical heating in diamond anvil cells (N. Dubrovinskaia, L. Dubrovinsky). A new gasket material for higher resolution NMR in diamond anvil cells (T. Okuchi, H. Mao, R.J. Hemley).