Many of the world's fisheries are in trouble - they no longer yield the catches, and potential profits, they once did. The habitats that support fisheries have been damaged by pollution and other irresponsible use of coastal land. Destructive fishing methods like trawling and blast fishing have also changed fish habitats resulting in support of fewer fish. The authors draw on more than 1000 scientific papers covering 11 groups/species of marine invertebrates. From this large literature, they distill 20 lessons for assessing and guiding the use of restocking and stock enhancement in the management of invertebrate fisheries.
1. Introduction 2. Restocking Initiatives 2.1 Giant Clams 2.2 Topshell 2.3 Sea Cucumbers 3. Stock Enhancement Initiatives 3.1 Scallops 3.2 Other Bivalves 3.3 Abalone 3.4 Queen Conch 3.5 Shrimps 3.6 Spiny Lobsters 3.7 Lobsters 3.8 Sea Urchins 4. Overview and Progress Towards a Responsible Approach 4.1 Restocking Initiatives 4.2 Stock Enhancement Initiatives 5. Lessons Learned 5.1 Lessons for Restocking 5.2 Lessons for Stock Enhancement 5.3 Lessons for both Restocking and Stock Enhancement 6. Management of Restocking and Stock Enhancement 6.1 Information to Evaluate the Need for Restocking 6.2 Management of Restocking 6.3 Information to Evaluate the Need for Stock Enhancement 6.4 Management of Stock Enhancement 6.5 Measures to Optimize Social and Financial Benefits of Restocking and Stock Enhancement 6.6 Independent Assessments 7. Other Important Considerations for all Initiatives 7.1 Measuring Success 7.2 Genetic Considerations 7.3 Disease risks 7.4 Other Environmental Impacts Conclusions 8.1 Achievements 8.2 The Responsible Approach 8.3 The Way Forward 8.4 Future Research 8.5 Summary Remarks Acknowledgements References Appendix