Examines the nature of the relationship between African fig wasps (especially the pollinators) and African fig trees.
Introduction. Reference. Biology of Figs and Fig Wasps. Introduction. The Development of the Figs. The Habits of Fig Trees. The Leaves. Stipules and Buds. The Position and Size of the Figs. The Structure of the Fig. The Flowers. The Staminate Flowers. The Pistillate Flowers. The Pollinators. Colonization of the Syconia. Oviposition and Pollination. Eclosion from the Galls and Mating of the Wasps. Eclosion from the Syconium. The Number of Offspring and the Sex-ratio of the Wasps. Phenology. The Infructescence and the Fruitlets. Dispersal. Germination. Hybridization. The Classification of the Figs. The Classification of the Pollinators. Comparison of the Classifications of Figs and Wasps. The Origin and Development of the Symbiosis. Parasitoids and Predators. References. The Genus Ficus in Africa. Introduction. Taxonomic History. Distribution. Diagnosis of the Genus Ficus L. Keys to the Sections. Keys to the Species. African Groups and Species. Introduced Species. Reference. The African Fig Wasps. Introduction. Key to the Genera. African Groups and Species. References. The Pollinators (Agaoninae). Diagnosis. Introduced Species. Classification. Key to the Genera. African Genera and Species. References. Bibliography. Index. Scientific Names of Animals ( and Bacteria ). Scientific Fig Names.