This study was inspired by observations and experiences from post-tsunami (2004) mangrove planting and ‘restoration’ work in the country. Since the tsunami, IUCN Sri Lanka supported a number of initiatives for improving mangrove management in the context of the structure and functioning of the parent ecosystems – estuaries and lagoons. In 2009, several mangrove planting and ‘restoration’ initiatives were supported under the Small Grants Programme of the Mangroves for the Future Initiative (MFF) in different parts of Sri Lanka. Inconsistent results from the Small Grants Programme together with other observations on changes to lagoon and estuarine ecosystems compelled IUCN to undertake an appraisal of mangrove planting initiatives in the country. This report captures the main observations and fndings from the study, and provides recommendations for mangrove planting and ‘restoration’ in the future.